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Monday, March 7, 2016

Archaeology of East Asia: The Rise of Civilisation in China, Korea and Japan

Author:
Gina L. Barnes

Publisher:
Oxbow Books

Publication Year:
2015



Abstract:

Archaeology of East Asia constitutes an introduction to social and political development from the Palaeolithic to 8th-century early historic times. It takes a regional view across China, Korea, Japan and their peripheries that is unbounded by modern state lines. This viewpoint emphasizes how the region drew on indigenous developments and exterior stimuli to produce agricultural technologies, craft production, political systems, religious outlooks and philosophies that characterize the civilization of historic and even modern East Asia.

This book is a complete rewrite and update of The Rise of Civilization in East Asia, first published in 1993. It incorporates the many theoretical, technical and factual advances of the last two decades, including DNA, gender, and isotope studies, AMS radiocarbon dating and extensive excavation results. Readers of that first edition will find the same structure and topic progression. While many line drawings have been retained, new colour illustrations abound. Boxes and Appendices clarify and add to the understanding of unfamiliar technologies. For those seeking more detail, the Appendices also provide case studies that take intimate looks at particular data and current research. 

Table of Contents:

List of Boxes ix
List of Figures ix
List of Tables xii

Preface xiii
Multiple editions xiii; Where is East Asia? xiv; Dating preferences xiv;
Language issues xv; Note on referencing xviii; Note on indexing xviii;
Acknowledgments xix

1 Orientation 1
Grounding 1
Starting from the Yellow Sea 1; Mainland geography 3; The loesslands 4;
The Northern Zone 4; Westward ho! 4; Eastward bound 4; North–south divisions 5
National chronologies 6
With or without writing? 7
Prehistoric archaeology 7; Protohistoric archaeology 8; Historic archaeology 12
East Asian cultural successions 13
The Chinese sequence 13; The Korean sequence 20; The Japanese sequence 23

2 Archaeological Organization 27
Archaeology as a government endeavor 27
Japan 29; Korea 33; China 35
East Asian archaeology since 1990 38
Science and theory 39; Multiple archaeologies 40; Cooperative projects 40;
Conferences 42; Journals 43

3 The Earliest Inhabitants (2,000,000–40,000 years ago) 45
The peopling of East Asia 45
The first peopling, or Out of Africa 1 48
What peoples? 48; Habitats, habits and habitation 52; Their tool kits 55
Intermediate peoples 60
The second peopling, or Out of Africa 2 60
How far east did Pleistocene hominins go, and when? 64

4 Innovations of Modern Humans (40,000–10,000 years ago) 67
Modern peoples and their accoutrements 67
Upper Palaeolithic climate and chronology 74
iv Archaeology of East Asia
New lithic strategies 79
Significance of prepared-core technologies 79; Blade varieties and assemblages 81
What were they hunting? 86
A mobile lifestyle 87
Harbingers of the Neolithic 89
Edge-ground axes 89; Plant utilization 91; Coastal living 92;
The invention of pottery 93

5 Earlier Holocene Subsistence Patterns
(10,000–5000 years ago = 8000–3000 BC) 96
Settling down 97
Earliest villages 97; Feedback loops between food and sedentism 102
‘In-between’ societies 103
Exploiting Holocene forests 104
The importance of nuts 104; Timbers, houses and woodworking tools 106
Living on Holocene shores 107
Anatomy of a shellmound 107; Fish stories 110
Pen/Insular species management 111
Jomon husbandry 111; Chulmun husbandry 115
Mainland cereal growers 116
Northern millet cultures 116; Southern rice culture 117; Mainland
broad-ranging subsistence 120
Food studies 121
Proportional food resources 121; Isotope analyses 123

6 The Mid-Holocene Social Mosaic (5000–2000 BC) 126
Introduction 126
The Middle Jomon phenomenon 127
A regional exchange network 127; Core villages 131
The Loesslands tradition 135
Yangshao villages 135; Loesslands pottery 141
The East Coast tradition 143
Dawenkou villages 143; East Coast ceramics 146
The Hongshan enigma 147
Dimensions of social status 149
Gender distinctions 149; Ritualists 150; Social hierarchies 153;
The importance of commensality 154
Summary 155

7 Emergence and Decline of Late Neolithic Societies (3300–1900 BC) 157
Introduction 157
Periodization 157; Agriculture, monumental architecture and social
stratification 160; What is a state? 161
Contents v
Urbanizing settlements 162
Of walls and terraces 162; Southern powerhouse: Liangzhu site complex 163;
Intermontane Taosi 165; Liangchengzhen, Eastern Longshan 167;
Quick comparisons 169
Site hierarchies 169
Central Plain polity development 170
Walled settlements 170; Sacrificial interments 172; Settlement system 172
The dramatic end of the Late Neolithic 174
The opening of the steppes 176
The western and central steppes 177; From west to east 177; Establishment of
the Early Metal Province 180

8 Bronze Age Beginnings (2000–850 BC) 181
Bronze Age time span 181
Bronze and agro-pastoralism 183
Qijia and Siba cultures 185; Zhukaigou 185; Lower Xiajiadian 186
Bronze and Erlitou 187
The Erlitou site (1850–1550 BC) 187; Erlitou culture and polity 191;
Significance of Erlitou bronze vessels 192
The Shang bronze tradition 192
Shang bronzes 195
Southern bronze cultures 199
Lower and Middle Yangzi 199; Sichuan Basin: Sanxingdui 200
The Northern Bronze Complex 202
In conclusion 204

9 Early State Florescence (1500–770 BC) 206
Dynastic successions 206
Was Erlitou the Xia capital? 207; Early, Middle and Late Shang 207;
Royal Zhou 208
Early inscriptions 209
Shang state organization 210
Shang capitals 210; The late great capital of Yinxu 214; Territorial
expansion 219; Political organization 222
Royal Zhou and enfeoffments 223
Zhou in the Zhouyuan 223; Early Zhou socio-political organization 225;
Yan – a royal enfeoffment 226
Early Zhou architectural contributions 226
Sacrifice and warfare 227
Sacrifice at altar and tomb 227; Of horses and chariots 228
Early state overview 229

10 Eastern Zhou and Its Frontiers (1st millennium BC) 231
Eastern Zhou (771–221 BC) 232
State autonomy 232; Warfare tactics 233
Zhou and ‘non-Zhou’ identity formation 234
From huaxia to Han 235; Peripheral origins 236
Zhou border states 237
The eastern state of Qi 237; The southern state of Chu 237;
Qin to the west 239; Jin in the northwest 240
Commercial endeavors 241
Bronzes: deterioriations and advances 241; Iron: the beginning of
an industry 244; Salt 248; A cash economy 248
The Northern Zone 249
From Rong and Di to hu 249; Northern signifiers: animal art and gold 253

11 Pen/Insular Rice, Bronze and Iron (1300–200 BC) 255
Contributions from the China Mainland 256
Upper Xiajiadian 256; Yueshi culture 258
Establishing Mumun culture 258
Transmission of rice farming 259; Dolmen and cist burials 261;
Final addition of bronzes to the funerary goods 262
Middle Mumun (850–550 BC) settlement and society 263
Taepyong-ri site 263; Komdan-ri site 265; Songguk-ri site 266
Late Mumun / Early Iron Age transitions (500–200 BC) 266
The Slender Bronze Dagger culture 267; Arrival of iron 269
From Jomon to Yayoi 270
Yayoi beginnings 270; Yayoi expansion 275; Craft advancements 278;
Jomon resistance to wet-rice agriculture 280

12 The Making and Breaking of Empire (350 BC–500 AD) 285
Qin, the Unifier 285
Warring states reforms 285; United China 286
The Han Dynasty 289
Establishment of unified rule 289; Imperial capitals 290;
Han burial innovations 293
Roads as arteries to the empire 298
Road to the west 298; Road to the south 301; Continuing northern
border problems 302; Northeastern relations 305
Turmoil at the end of Han 306
Fragmentation of the empire 306; Succeeding polities 307

13 The Yellow Sea Interaction Sphere (400 BC – 300 AD) 309
Trade and tribute relations 309
Meeting the Hui and Mo 309; Han domination 309
Northeastern horse-riders 311
Puyo in the central Manchurian Basin 311; Early Koguryo in the
eastern Manchurian massif 313
The Lelang commandery 313
Commandery sites 313; Relations with Shandong and Liaodong 314;
Lelang tombs 315; From Gongsun to Wei rule 316
The Samhan of the southern Korean Peninsula 317
Commandery connections 317; Ceramic advancements 320; Iron production 321;
From the Three Han to the Three Kingdoms 322
Yayoi bronze cultures 323
Renewed continental connections 323; North Kyushu continental gateway 326

14 Mounded Tomb Cultures (2–5c AD) 331
Pen/Insular state formation 331
On the Peninsula 332
Koguryo and Paekche origins 332; Kaya and Silla origins 336
In the Islands 342
From mound-burials to mounded tombs 342; Daifang and Queen Himiko 346;
Kofun bunka: the mounded tomb culture (MTC) of Japan 347
Early state relations 351
Warfare 351; Writing 354
New tombs and art 355
Corridor-chamber tombs 355; Mural tombs 356
Expansion of Silla and Yamato 358
Administrative incorporation by Yamato 358; Military conquest by Silla 359

15 East Asian Civilization (3–7c AD) 361
Rapid transformations 361
On the Mainland 361; In the Pen/Insulae 363
Buddhism 364
Buddhist grottoes 365; Pen/Insular Buddhism 367; Temple excavations 368
Law and administration: a Yamato case study 370
Territorial control 371
Gridded cities 371; Provincial systems 374; A new field system 377; Taxation 378
Technological developments 380
Cosmopolitan lifestyles 382

16 Epilogue: Ancient East Asia in the Modern World 384
Why study East Asian archaeology? 384
Sharing of religious philosophies 385
Friction dating to earlier times 387
The problem with Mimana 388; Keyhole tombs in Korea 388; Koguryo split
between two states 389
The importance of national heritage 390

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