Monday, April 30, 2018

Having a Word with Angus Graham: At Twenty-Five Years into His Immortality

Editor:
Carine Defoort and Roger T. Ames

Publication Date:
March 2018

Publisher:
State University of New York Press




Abstract:
This volume engages with the works and ideas of Angus Charles Graham (1919–1991), one of the most prominent Western scholars of Chinese philosophy, at the twenty-fifth anniversary of his passing. Over a professional career of more than thirty years, Angus Graham produced an impressive amount of scholarship on a wide array of topics, ranging from Chinese grammar and philology to poetry and philosophy. His combination of rigorous scholarship and philosophical originality has continued to inspire scholars to tackle related research topics, and in so doing, has required of them a response to his views. This book illustrates the range of scholarship still elaborating upon, disagreeing with, and reacting to Graham’s work on Chinese thought, philosophy, philology, and translation.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Having a Word with Angus Graham: At the First Twenty-Five Years into His Immortality
Carine Defoort and Roger T. Ames

1. Reading the Zhuangzi Anthology
Esther S. Klein

2. Reflections on Textual Analysis in the Post-Graham Era
Liu Xiaogan

3. Cognitive Attunement in the Zhuangzi
Harold D. Roth

4. Vital Matters, A.C. Graham, and the Zhuangzi
Michael Nylan

5. Remarks on Intertranslatability and Relativism
Henry Rosemont, Jr.

6. Getting to the Bottom of “Things” (wù 物): Expanding on A.C. Graham’s Understanding
Robert H. Gassmann

7. Míng (名) as “Names” Rather than “Words:” Disabled Bodies Speaking without Acting in Early Chinese Texts
Jane Geaney

8. Unfounded and Unfollowed: Mencius’ Portrayal of Yang Zhu and Mo Di
Carine Defoort

9. Reconstructing A.C. Graham’s Reading of Mencius on xing 性: A Coda to “The Background of the Mencian Theory of Human Nature” (1967)
Roger T. Ames

10. Reason and Spontaneity Reconsidered
Lisa Raphals

11. Spontaneity and Marriage
Paul Kjellberg

12. Rationalism and Anti-Rationalism in Later Mohism and Zhuāngzǐ
Chris Fraser

Saturday, April 28, 2018

Hidden and Visible Realms: Early Medieval Chinese Tales of the Supernatural and the Fantastic

Author: 
Liu Yiqing 劉義慶

Translator: 
Zhenjun Zhang

Publisher:
Columbia University Press

Publication Date:
May 2018



Abstract:

Chinese culture of the Six Dynasties period (220–589) saw a blossoming of stories of the fantastic. Zhiguai, “records of the strange” or “accounts of anomalies,” tell of encounters with otherness, in which inexplicable and uncanny phenomena interrupt mundane human affairs. They depict deities, ghosts, and monsters; heaven, the underworld, and the immortal lands; omens, metamorphoses, and trafficking between humans and supernatural beings; and legendary figures, strange creatures, and natural wonders in the human world.

Hidden and Visible Realms (幽明錄), traditionally attributed to Liu Yiqing, is one of the most significant zhiguai collections, distinguished by its varied contents, elegant writing style, and fascinating stories. It is also among the earliest collections heavily influenced by Buddhist beliefs, values, and concerns. Beyond the traditional zhiguai narratives, it includes tales of karmic retribution, reincarnation, and Buddhist ghosts, hell, and magic. In this annotated first complete English translation, Zhenjun Zhang gives English-speaking readers a sense of the wealth and wonder of the zhiguai canon. Hidden and Visible Realms opens a window into the lives, customs, and religious beliefs and practices of early medieval China and the cultural history of Chinese Buddhism. In the introduction, Zhang explains the key themes and textual history of the work.

Table of Contents:

Introduction
Chapter 1. The Wonder of Love
Chapter 2. A Garden of Marvels
Chapter 3. The Spectacle of Monsters
Chapter 4. The Realm of Ghosts
Chapter 5. The Netherworld and This World
Chapter 6. Animals and Men
Chapter 7. Anecdotes of Notable Figures
Chapter 8. Local Legends
Appendix
Tales Appearing in Other Renditions
Works Cited
Index

Tuesday, April 24, 2018

Linguistic Mysteries of Ethnonyms in Inner Asia

Author:
WANG, Penglin 

Publication Date:
March 2018

Publisher:
Lexington Books




Abstract:

In Linguistic Mysteries of Ethnonyms in Inner Asia, Penglin Wang focuses on semantics as a central theme in onomastics and strives to unravel the origin and meaning of a series of influential ethnonyms such as Xianbei, Rouran, Tabγač, Tatar, Shiwei, Mongol, Merkid, Nüzhen, Jušen, and Nikan. Since much of modern research has dealt with issues of Inner Asian ethnonyms within a regional framework, Wang’s exploration of the early Indo-European and Altaic influence on the ethnonymic designations of Mongol-Tungusic and Turkic groups opens up a new horizon for transcontinental approaches, which represent an important thrust in Inner Asian and Eurasian studies. Wang has based this comprehensive study on textual, cross-linguistic, and patterned analysis of the ethnonyms found primarily in ancient Chinese sources.


Table of Contents:

1. A Linguistic Approach to Ethnonyms
2. Numerals in Ethnonyms
3. Xianbei as Cold
4. Tabγač as Farmer
5. Shiwei 室韋 at the Juncture of Septenary and North
6. Mongol and Merkit as Sunrise
7. Jušen and Nikan as Deictic Expressions

Monday, April 23, 2018

Violence, Kinship and the Early Chinese State: The Shang and their World

Author:
Roderick Campbell

Publisher: 
Cambridge University Press

Publication date: 
April 2018




Abstract:

Situated between myth and history, the Shang has been hailed both as China's first historical dynasty and as one of the world's primary civilizations. This book is an up-to-date synthesis of the archaeological, palaeographic and transmitted textual evidence for the Shang polity at Anyang (c.1250–1050 BCE). Roderick Campbell argues that violence was not the antithesis of civilization at Shang Anyang, but rather its foundation in war and sacrifice. He explores the social economy of practices and beliefs that produced the ancestral order of the Shang polity. From the authority of posthumously deified kings, to the animalization of human sacrificial victims, the ancestral ritual complex structured the Shang world through its key institutions of war, sacrifice, and burial. Mediated by hierarchical lineages, participation in these practices was basic to being Shang. This volume, which is based on the most up-to-date evidence, offers comprehensive and cutting-edge insight into the Chinese Bronze Age civilization.

Table of Contents:

1. Being, society and world: towards an inter-ontic approach
2. Cities, states and civilizations
3. Central plains civilization from Erlitou to Anyang
4. The great settlement Shang and its polity: networks, boundaries and the 
    social economy
5. Kinship, place and social order
6. Violence and Shang civilization
7. Constructing the ancestors: the social economy of burial
8. Technologies of pacification and the world of the great settlement Shang

Thursday, April 19, 2018

Empires of Ancient Eurasia: The First Silk Roads Era, 100 BCE – 250 CE

Author: 
Craig Benjamin

Publisher: 
Cambridge University Press

Publication Date:
April 2018





Abstract:

The Silk Roads are the symbol of the interconnectedness of ancient Eurasian civilizations. Using challenging land and maritime routes, merchants and adventurers, diplomats and missionaries, sailors and soldiers, and camels, horses and ships, carried their commodities, ideas, languages and pathogens enormous distances across Eurasia. The result was an underlying unity that traveled the length of the routes, and which is preserved to this day, expressed in common technologies, artistic styles, cultures and religions, and even disease and immunity patterns. In words and images, Craig Benjamin explores the processes that allowed for the comingling of so many goods, ideas, and diseases around a geographical hub deep in central Eurasia. He argues that the first Silk Roads era was the catalyst for an extraordinary increase in the complexity of human relationships and collective learning, a complexity that helped drive our species inexorably along a path towards modernity.

Table of Contents:

Introduction
1. Pastoral nomads and the empires of the Steppe
2. Early China: prelude to the silk roads
3. Zhang Qian and Han expansion into Central Asia
4. The early Han dynasty and the Eastern Silk Roads
5. Rome and the Western Silk Roads
6. The Parthian Empire and the Silk Roads
7. The Kushan Empire: at the crossroads of ancient Eurasia
8. Maritime routes of the first Silk Roads era
9. Collapse of Empires and the decline of the first Silk Roads era
Conclusion.

Wednesday, April 18, 2018

多民族社会の軍事統治: 出土史料が語る中国古代

Editor:
宮宅 潔 (MIYAKE, Kiyoshi)

Publisher:
京都大学学術出版会

Publication Date:
April 2018




Table of Contents:

はじめに
 ――共同研究の経緯と問題の所在

Ⅰ 研究動向篇
 第1章 中国古代軍事史研究の現状[宮宅 潔]
 

 第2章 「闘争集団」と「普遍的軍事秩序」のあいだ
     ――親衛軍研究の可能性[丸橋充拓]

Ⅱ 論考篇
第1部 「中華」の拡大と軍事制度:占領支配の諸相
 第3章 征服から占領統治へ
     ――里耶秦簡に見える穀物支給と駐屯軍[宮宅 潔]

 第4章 秦代遷陵県の「庫」に関する初歩的考察[陳 偉]
  
 第5章 漢代西北辺境防備軍の社会構造h
     ――出土史料の分析に基づく方法論的考察[エノ・ギーレ]
  
 第6章 漢代長城警備体制の変容[鷹取祐司]

第2部 軍事制度よりみた古代帝国の構造
 第7章 秦漢「内史―諸郡」武官変遷考
      ――軍事体制より日常行政体制への転換を背景として[孫 聞博]
  
 第8章 漢代における周辺民族と軍事
     ――とくに属国都尉と異民族統御官を中心に[佐藤達郎]

 第9章 漢帝国の辺境支配と部都尉[金 秉駿]
  はじめに
  
第3部 「中華」の転換と再編:多民族社会における軍事と支配
 第10章 前秦政権における「民族」と軍事[藤井律之]

 第11章 北魏道武帝の「部族解散」と高車部族に対する羈縻支配[佐川英治]
  はじめに

 第12章 唐前半期における羈縻州・蕃兵・軍制に関する覚書
      ――営州を事例として[森部 豊]

 第13章 唐代高句麗・百済系蕃将の待遇及び生存戦略[李基天]

後記

Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Das Hou Han ji des Yuan Hong: Zur Historiographie der Späteren Han-Dynastie

Author:
Eicher, Sebastian

Publication Date:
March 2018

Publisher:
Harrassowitz Verlag



Abstract:

In der Zeit nach dem Fall der Späteren Han-Dynastie 後漢 (25–220) begannen zahlreiche Geschichtsschreiber, das auf kaiserlichen Auftrag hin kompilierte offizielle Geschichtswerk der Dynastie, das Dongguan Han ji 東觀漢記, zu überarbeiten und zu kürzen. Innerhalb von ca. 200 Jahren entstand auf diese Weise ein rundes Dutzend Werke, die allesamt aus denselben Quellen schöpften, die Geschichte jedoch jeweils ein wenig anders erzählten. Bis heute überdauert haben davon nur zwei, Fan Yes 范曄 (398–446) Hou Han shu 後漢 書und Yuan Hongs 袁宏 (330–378) Hou Han ji 後漢紀. Diese sind jedoch weit davon entfernt, gleichberechtigt nebeneinanderzustehen. Während das Hou Han shu in den Kreis der 24 Dynastiegeschichten aufgenommen wurde und seit langem die wichtigste Quelle für die Spätere Han-Dynastie darstellt, verschwand das Hou Han ji nahezu vollkommen in seinem Schatten und wurde häufig als eine Art Kurzversion des eigentlichen Geschichtswerks abgetan. 

Sebastian Eicher zeigt in seiner Studie auf der Grundlage von Vergleichen der Darstellung wichtiger Ereignisse und Figuren in den beiden Werken und in den fragmentarisch erhaltenen Vorgängerversionen, dass in vielen Fällen eine alternative Darstellung und Interpretation der Ereignisse unberücksichtigt blieb und dass die Lektüre des Hou Han ji wertvolle Einblicke in die Arbeitsweise mittelalterlicher chinesischer Geschichtsschreiber liefern kann. Denn auch wenn beide Autoren aus derselben Materialbasis schöpften, so stellten sie doch nicht immer dieselben Fragen an die Geschichte und wählten nach anderen Kriterien aus: Das Ergebnis sind zwei durchaus unterschiedliche Darstellungen der Späteren Han-Dynastie.

Table of Contents:

Einleitung: Eine   andere Geschichte aus  bekannten Elementen
Kapitel 1:  Die   Geschichtsschreibung zur   Späteren Han-Dynastie
Kapitel 2:  Wie   man   Geschichte schreibt
Kapitel 3:  Das   Gengshi-Interregm
Kapitel 4:  Guangwus Kaisergemahlinnen 
Kapitel 5:  Die   zwei    Gesichter des   Dou   Xian
Kapitel 6:  Der   Auslöser der   Parteiungs-Proskription 
Kapitel 7:  Das   Verhältnis von  Cao   Cao   und   Kaiser Xian
Kapitel 8: Das Ziel des Hou Han ji
Schluss: Nachwirken und Bedeutung des Hou Han ji

Monday, April 16, 2018

Women in Ancient China

Author:
Bret Hinsch


Publisher:
Rowman & Littlefield

Publication Date:
June 2018



Abstract:

This pioneering book provides a comprehensive survey of ancient Chinese women’s history, covering thousands of years from the Neolithic era to China’s unification in 221 BCE. For each period—Neolithic, Shang, Western Zhou, and Eastern Zhou—Bret Hinsch explores central aspects of female life: marriage, family life, politics, ritual, and religious roles. Deeply researched, the book draws on a wide range of Chinese scholarship and primary sources, including transmitted texts, inscriptions, and archaeological evidence. The result is a comprehensive view of women’s history from the beginnings of Chinese civilization up to the beginnings of the imperial era. Clear and readable, the book will be invaluable for both students and specialists in gender studies.

Table of Contents:

List of Figures
Introduction
Chapter One: The Myth of Matriarchy
Chapter Two: Neolithic Era
Chapter Three: Shang Dynasty
Chapter Four: Western Zhou Era
Chapter Five: Eastern Zhou Era
Epilogue: The Myth of the Evil Woman
Glossary
Notes
Bibliography
Index

Sunday, April 15, 2018

[Dissertation] Engraving Identities in Stone: Stone Mortuary Equipment of the Northern Dynasties (386-581 CE)

Author:
XU, Jin 徐津

School:
University of Chicago

Defended:
2017

Abstract:

The Northern Dynasties (386-581 CE) marked a turning point in Chinese history. After the collapse of the Han Empire in 220 AD, the native Han Chinese were never again able to establish an enduring unified dynasty again. Consequently, the Northern Dynasties represented the final stage of the longstanding political division between dynasties in the south, ruled by Han aristocrats and generals, and the kingdoms in the north, founded by various peoples of nomadic origins. From the Northern Wei (386-534 CE) to the Northern Zhou (557-581 CE), nomadic Xianbei rulers created and consolidated a ruling coalition composed of multiple cultural and ethnic groups, which paved the way for the reunification of China in 589 CE and the emergence of the so-called golden age of Chinese civilization.

The interaction between diverse cultural and ethnic groups that characterized the Northern Dynasties was especially intense among the uppermost echelon of the society. The key to understanding the dynamism of this interaction is a careful consideration of the colorful ways in which people of the period defined themselves politically, culturally, and personally. To this end, this dissertation addresses the question of how the elites of the Northern Dynasties used stone mortuary equipment to express their identity. Eschewing the hackneyed analytical paradigm of sinicization (or desinicization), this dissertation draws attention to political, communal, and individual identity through a series of case studies. By so doing, it also reveals the intersection of identities during the Northern Dynasties.

This dissertation is comprised of three chapters and chiefly uses visual analysis to account for the material properties, spatial strategies, and narrative images of mortuary stones. The first chapter investigates the mortuary stones of three groups of people: the Tuoba royalty of the Northern Wei, Sogdian immigrant merchants, and Han scholarly officials. It demonstrates how these people articulated their distinct political, communal, and cultural identity by taking advantage of the ritual significance, versatility, and natural beauty of the material of stone. Concentrating on the Shi Jun 史君 sarcophagus, the second chapter reveals the dualistic identity (secular and spiritual) of a Sogdian immigrant merchant. Shi Jun’s tomb brings together two distinct spaces — a physical space of ancestor worship constructed according to Confucian ritual protocols and a virtual space of paradisiac afterlife invoked by religious visual devices. The third chapter focuses on the narrative engravings of mortuary stones and demonstrates that artists of the Northern Dynasties tended to customize standardized illustrations in such a way that they could capture the personal identity of the tomb owner. This chapter first discusses how artists transformed filial son illustrations into mortuary symbols or allegorical portraits of the deceased. Secondly, this chapter shows how the artists that created the Shi Jun sarcophagus composed a pictorial biography of the deceased by deploying the illustrations of the Buddha’s life.

Saturday, April 14, 2018

[Dissertation] Early Chinese Empires and the People without History: Resistance, Agency and Identity of Ancient Colonial Sichuan

Author:
Chuan-an Hu

School:
McGill University

Defended:
2017

Abstract:

Early Chinese Empires were colonial regimes. The major aim of my dissertation is to elaborate on previous interpretations of cultural change and to highlight the negotiation of identity between imperial and local agents in a colonial context.  Colonial encounters not only have occurred in modern times, but also in early Imperial China.  The state of Qin (778 BC-221 BC) conquered the entire land of Sichuan (316 BC).  This region may well have been Qin’s first colony before it finally unified China and created an empire (221 BC). Forceful military acquisitions of the land and the construction of a colonial landscape reshaped the indigenous cultures.  The adoption of the metropolitan cultures (traditionally recognized as “sinicization”) continued for more than five hundred years.

In the past, historians have tended to view cultural change under Qin and Han colonial rule as a normative process, by which the superior metropolitan cultures were passively accepted by the “naturally” inferior, local peoples of ancient Sichuan. However, the society of ancient colonial Sichuan was dynamic, composed of complex interactions among mobile individuals and groups. Local and metropolitan identities emerged nearly simultaneously. Micro and macro identities developed in close relationship with each other and were mutually constitutive. The peoples in ancient Sichuan were not merely “sinicized,” but rather that they often played an active role in constructing their local cultural identities within greater imperial world.

Studies of ancient China often take cultural contact as monolithic and portray China as a state/empire with a monotonic voice. This dissertation seeks to deconstruct the Sino-centric identity through the investigation of the contact between China and her neighbor, ancient Sichuan. I see the cultural contacts as a set of diversified, uneven and heterogeneous interactions, rather than a one-way process. This dissertation deploys an interdisciplinary approach to address this question and to produce a critical synthesis based on the methods of history and archaeology; it analyzes textual sources in the form of standard histories, local histories and inscriptional evidence; and material cultures from burials and other sites. These approaches are well integrated with each other and will be used in both macro and micro contexts. Several expressions of identity are examined including local intellectual agency, ritual practice, and the compilation of local history.

Friday, April 13, 2018

Critical Readings on Tang China

Editor:
Paul W. Kroll

Publisher:
Brill

Publication Date:
May 2018




Abstract:

The Tang dynasty, lasting from 618 to 907, was the high point of medieval Chinese history, featuring unprecedented achievements in governmental organization, economic and territorial expansion, literature, the arts, and religion. Many Tang practices continued, with various developments, to influence Chinese society for the next thousand years. For these and other reasons the Tang has been a key focus of Western sinologists. This volume presents English-language reprints of fifty-seven critical studies of the Tang, in the three general categories of political history, literature and cultural history, and religion. The articles and book chapters included here are important scholarly benchmarks that will serve as the starting-point for anyone interested in the study of medieval China.

Table of Contents:

Tang Emperors’ Accession Dates and Reign Titles (nianhao 年號)

General Introduction
Paul W. Kroll

History—Political, Intellectual, and Military

1 Wen Ta-ya 溫大雅: The First Recorder of T’ang History
Woodbridge Bingham

2 The Rise to Power of the T’ang Dynasty: A Reassessment
Howard J. Wechsler

3 The T’ang Imperial Family
Denis Twitchett

4 Canonical Scholarship
David McMullen

5 Neo-Confucianism and Neo-Legalism in T’ang Intellectual Life, 755–805
Edwin G. Pulleyblank

6 The Structure of T’ang Selection
P. A. Herbert

7 Decree Examinations in T’ang China
P. A. Herbert

8 The Bureaucratic Apparatus [of T’ang Historians]
Denis Twitchett

9 Bureaucracy and Cosmology: The Ritual Code of T’ang China
David McMullen

10 Wei Cheng’s Thought [esp. Regarding Government]
Howard J. Wechsler

11 Imperial Power and the Ruling Class [under Empress Wu]
Richard W. L. Guisso

12 The Chou Dynasty [of Empress Wu]
Richard W. L. Guisso

13 The Career of Yang Kuei-fei
Howard S. Levy

14 The Flight from the Capital and the Death of Precious Consort Yang
Paul W. Kroll

15 Foreign Policy
P. A. Herbert

16 The An Lu-shan Rebellion and the Origins of Chronic Militarism in Late T’ang China
Edwin G. Pulleyblank

Literature and Cultural History

17 T’ang Literati: A Composite Biography
Hans H. Frankel

18 Transparencies: Reading the T’ang Lyric
Stephen Owen

19 The Significance of the fu in the History of T’ang Poetry
Paul W. Kroll

20 An Offering to the Prince: Wang Bo’s Apology for Poetry
Ding Xiang Warner

21 Tamed Kite and Stranded Fish: Interference and Apology in Lu Chao-lin’s fu
Paul W. Kroll

22 A Re-evaluation of Chen Ziang’s 陳子昂 ‘Manifesto of a Poetic Reform’
Timothy Wai Keung Chan

23 On Li Po
Elling O. Eide

24 Li Po’s Letters in Pursuit of Political Patronage
Victor H. Mair

25 Li Bai’s ‘Rhapsody on the Hall of Light’: A Singular Vision of Cosmic Order
Nicholas Morrow Williams

26 Tu Fu
Stephen Owen

27 Tu Fu’s Social Conscience: Compassion and Topicality in his Poetry
Eva Shan Chou

28 Poems in Their Place: Collections and Canons in Early Chinese Literature
Pauline Yu

29 Heyue yingling ji and the Attributes of Tang Verse
Paul W. Kroll

30 The Formation of the T’ang Estate Poem
Stephen Owen

31 Lexical Landscapes and Textual Mountains in the High T’ang
Paul W. Kroll

32 Historical and Literary Theory in the Mid-Eighth Century
David McMullen

33 The Manuscript Legacy of the Tang: The Case of Literature
Stephen Owen

34 Literary Collections in Tang Dynasty China
Christopher M. B. Nugent

35 A Study of the Jinglong wenguan ji 景龍文館記
Jia Jinhua

36 The Old-Style fu of Han Yu
David R. Knechtges

37 Another Go at the Mao Ying chuan 毛穎傳
Elling O. Eide

38 The Old Men [of the Early Ninth Century]
Stephen Owen

39 The Inscription of Emotion in Mid-Tang Collegial Letters
Anna M. Shields

40 Yüan Chen and ‘The Story of Ying-ying’
James Robert Hightower

41 Nostalgia and History in Mid-Ninth-Century Verse: Cheng Yü’s Poem on ‘The Chin-yang Gate’
Paul W. Kroll

42 Remembering Kaiyuan and Tianbao: The Construction of Mosaic Memory in Medieval Historical Miscellanies
Manling Luo

43 The Dancing Horses of T’ang
Paul W. Kroll

44 Falconry in T’ang Times
Edward H. Schafer

45 Public Values in Calligraphy and Orthography in the Tang Dynasty
Amy McNair

Religion

46 The Role of Buddhist Monasteries in T’ang Society
Kenneth K. S. Ch’en

47 Buddhism and Education in T’ang Times
Erik Zürcher

48 Imperial Patronage in the Formation of T’ang Buddhism
Stanley Weinstein

49 Stūpa, Sūtra, Śarīra in China, c. 656–706 CE
T. H. Barrett

50 The Birth of a Patriarch: The Biography of Hui-neng
Philip B. Yampolsky

51 Metropolitan Chan
John R. McRae

52 Time after Time: Taoist Apocalyptic History and the Founding of the T’ang Dynasty
Stephen R. Bokenkamp

53 Taoist Ordination Ranks in the Tunhuang Manuscripts
Kristofer M. Schipper

54 Taoism in the T’ien-pao Era, 742–56
T. H. Barrett

55 Li Po’s Transcendent Diction
Paul W. Kroll

56 Immortality Can be Studied
Jan De Meyer

57 The Worshippers of Mount Hua
Glen Dudbridge

Wednesday, April 11, 2018

[Dissertation] The Imperial Collection of the Former Han and the Origins of Philology in China: A Study of the Bielu, Qilüe and Hanshu Yiwenzhi

Author:
Max Jakob Fölster

School:
Universität Hamburg

Defended:
2016

Abstract:

The imperial library of the Former Han dynasty (206 BCE–9 CE) is the first collection about there is substantial information in form of a catalog. This is the Yiwenzhi chapter of the Hanshu, the dynastic history compiled by Ban Gu (32–92). As is well known this catalog goes back to two earlier sources, the Bielu and the Qilüe, which originate from the collation project started in 26 BCE. This grand project was not only about making an inventory, but also encompassed producing editions of the different texts. In the beginning the project was headed by Liu Xiang (79–8 BCE), who wrote editorial reports on each of the edited texts, all of these reports are believed to have been brought together in the Bielu. After Liu Xiang’s death the work was continued by his son Liu Xin (ca. 50 BCE–23 CE), who summarized the reports in the Qilüe, which Ban Gu indicates as his direct source. The Bielu and the Qilüe have only come down to us in fragments. The present work brings together all extant fragments as well as the Yiwenzhi in translation for the first time.

The first part investigates in which relation the three sources stand to each other precisely. On the one hand, it can be shown that the Bielu only came into being after the Qilüe. On the other hand, it becomes clear that the marked changes found in the Yiwenzhi, which traditionally are attributed to Ban Gu, go back to Liu Xin. The latter had continued the collation project under the reign of Wang Mang and produced a revision of or sequel to the previously finished Qilüe.

Ban Gu does not mention this deliberately because he denies Wang Mang any legitimacy and makes him responsible for the fall of the Former Han-dynasty. The second part is devoted to the history of the imperial collection. There are good reasons to assume that the assembling of manuscripts only began under Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BCE) and that there existed various collections at different places within the palace. The collation project led to the production of new manuscripts and thus created a new collection, which is what the Yiwenzhi describes. It is evident that administrative documents and judicial texts were not part of the collection, these were rather stored in special archives. The initial motivation behind the collation project cannot be reconstructed entirely, but, Liu Xiang, in any case, used his editorial reports as a means to try exerting influence on the emperor.

The third part is on the philological methods developed by Liu Xiang to make editions of the text. Despite the innovative nature of the methods it is clear that Liu Xiang resorted to procedures in the production of documents and copying of texts that had been employed in the bureaucracy before. At the same time, different types of editions have to be distinguished. In some cases these are compilations of texts by Liu Xiang; others are editions on the basis of a body of texts attributed to a certain author, which before had been circulating individually; finally there were already stable editions, which probably did not need much editing. Without a doubt, Liu Xiang’s editorial work had a significant influence on all received texts as we know them today.

Monday, April 9, 2018

Gold in Ancient China (2000-200 BCE)

Authors:
Yang Junchang 楊軍昌, Paul Jett, Chen Jianli 陳建立

Publication Date:
July 2017

Publisher:
文物



Table of Contents:

Preface I
Preface II
Introduction
Excavated Gold Dating to the Xia and Shang Dynasties
Excavated Gold Dating to the Western Zhou Dynasty
Excavated Gold Dating to the Spring and Autumn Period
Excavated Gold Dating to the Warring States Period
Summary
Bibliography
Acknowledgements

Saturday, April 7, 2018

漢倭奴国王から日本国天皇へ:国号「日本」と称号「天皇」の誕生

Author:
冨谷 至 (Itaru Tomiya)

Publication Date:
April 2018

Publisher:
臨川書店



Table of Contents:

はじめに

第一章 倭国の認識
第一節 「倭」とは / 第二節 楽浪海中に倭人あり / 第三節 海の向こうに憧れた孔子 / 第四節 朝鮮半島出土の『論語』

第二章 漢倭奴国王
第一節 出土した光武帝の金印 / 第二節 「漢委奴国王」はどう読むのか / 第三節 朝貢の真の意味

第三章 親魏倭王卑弥呼
第一節 祁山悲秋の風更けて、陣雲暗し五丈原 / 第二節 親魏倭王となす / 第三節 『日本書紀』が記す「魏志倭人伝」

第四章 倭の五王の時代
第一節 邪馬台国、その後 / 第二節 漢人王朝の終焉 / 第三節 安東大将軍倭国王―倭の五王 / 第四節 複雑な官職名、称号 / 第五節 一品官をめざして / 第六節 南朝と北朝の抗争の中で

第五章 日本列島における漢字の伝来
第一節 倭王武の上奏文 / 第二節 出土資料が語る / 第三節 渡来人と漢字 / 第四節 石上神宮の七支刀

第六章 疎遠の六世紀―南朝中華主義の没落
第一節 南朝梁と倭国 / 第二節 中華主義への憧憬―職貢図

第七章 日出る国の天子―遣隋使の時代
第一節 遣隋使 / 第二節 煬帝に聞いてみなければわからない / 第三節 日出処、日沈処 / 第四節 天子 / 第五節 皇帝菩薩と当今如来 / 第六節 海西菩薩天子 / 第七節 『日本書紀』の遣隋使の記載

第八章 天皇号の成立
第一節 飛鳥池遺跡出土「天皇」木簡 / 第二節 天武以前の資料 / 第三節 天皇号に先立つ称号 / 第四節 オオキミ・王・皇 / 第五節 天皇号の誕生

第九章 国号日本の成立
第一節 倭国、改めて日本国と曰う / 第二節 「禰軍墓誌」の発見 / 第三節 白村江の戦い / 第四節 国号「日本」の成立

終わりにあたって

参考資料/図版出典一覧/索引

Monday, April 2, 2018

Routledge Handbook of Early Chinese History

Editor:
Paul R. Goldin 

Publisher:
Routledge

Publication Date:
May 2018




Abstract:

The study of early China has been radically transformed over the past fifty years by archaeological discoveries, including both textual and non-textual artifacts. Thanks to the huge fund of new data provided by archaeology, historians are now keenly aware that traditional accounts of the period are inadequte because they are partisan, prescriptive, and incomplete. Excavations of settlements and tombs have demonstrated that most people did not lead their lives in accordance with the rituals canons, while previously unknown documents have shown that most received histories were written retrospectively by victors, and present a correspondingly skewed and anachronistic perspective.

This handbook provides an authoritive survey of  Chinese history from the Stone Age to A.D. 220. It is the first volume to include not only a comprehensive review of political history, but also detailed treatments of topics that transcend particular historical moments, such as warfare, cities, literature, and science. The contributions from doyens in the field and up and coming scholars reflect the cutting edge research that is redefining the study of Early Chinese history.

Table of Contents:

Introduction: What Is Early Chinese History?, Paul R. Goldin

Part I: Chronology

1. Main Issues in the Study of the Chinese Neolithic, Gideon Shelach-Lavi

2. Of Millets and Wheat: Diet and Health on the Central Plain of China during the Neolithic and Bronze Age, Kate Pechenkina

3. The Bronze Age before the Zhou Dynasty, Robert Bagley

4. The Western Zhou State, Li Feng

5. The Age of Territorial Lords, Chen Shen

6. The Qin Dynasty, Charles Sanft

7. The Former Han Empire, Vincent S. Leung

8. The Latter Han Empire and the End of Antiquity, Wicky W.K. Tse


Part II: Topical Studies

9. The Old Chinese Language, Axel Schuessler

10. Writing, Luo Xinhui; tr. Zachary Hershey and Paul R. Goldin

11. The Spirit World, Jue Guo

12. Religious Thought, Ori Tavor

13. Political Thought, Yuri Pines

14. Food and Agriculture, Roel Sterckx

15. Warfare, Wicky W.K. Tse

16. Currency, François Thierry

17. Women in Early China: Views from the Archaeological Record, Anne Behnke Kinney

18. An Overview of the Qin-Han Legal System from the Perspective of Recently Unearthed Documents, Kyung-ho Kim and Ming-chiu Lai

19. Literature, Stephen Durrant

20. Art, Wang Haicheng

21. "Medicine" in Early China, Miranda Brown

22. Mathematics, Karine Chemla


23. Astronomy, David Pankenier