Monday, November 30, 2015

Workshop on Zhangjiashan tomb 247 (張家山247號漢墓工作坊)

ERC project SAW (Research Group SPHERE) & 
Centre de recherche sur les civilisations de l’Asie orientale (CRCAO)

Paris Diderot University

November 25, 2015


From an observer’s viewpoint, the contents of a tomb like Zhangjiashan M247 can be disorientingly eclectic. And albeit arranged as a coherent whole by early Chinese actors, we historians tend to divvy such contents amongst us: the casket and pottery to the archaeologists, and the manuscripts to paleographers; regulations and ordinances to legal scholars, and recipe slips to historians of medicine. The aim of this workshop is to run counter to this practice and to explore what might be gained from approaching the tomb in its ensemble.

We already rely on one another’s puzzle pieces to situate our own, though we may not always understand the picture emerging in the other’s corner. We date the tomb to 186 BCE because of the “calendar,” but what do we really know about tomb and non-tomb calendrical tables? We identify the disintegrated occupant as a literate low-level administrator, but how expert are we in the funerary items and administrative texts upon which this assumption lies? One of the goals of this workshop is to debrief one another on the status of our own puzzle piece as it constitutes an element of context common to all (both within the tomb and the broader society and intellectual culture of the period). 

Equally valuable is sharing what our approaches to disparate tomb objects have taught each of us about their biography. We all want to know about how and why the manuscripts were produced, about the identity of the tomb occupant, and about what we can do with the archeological cross section of the manuscript horde (the last page of the Zhangjiashan M247 report), but the archaeologist is not always up to speed about the historian of mathematics’ analysis of scribal hands, nor the historian of mathematics about the legal historian’s work on physical and textual order, etc. The second goal of this workshop is therefore to debrief one another on how our materials may speak to common interests in manuscript studies.

To understand a single facet of a given tomb, we must strive to understand all of them, which is why we have decided to gather experts on fields as diverse as the contents of M247 itself to discuss the tomb, its manuscript corpus, and points of common interest concerning the production and transmission of text in early China. Papers will of course be focused on, rather than limited to, the M247, as the tomb and its contents are themselves pieces in a larger puzzle. We have chosen Zhangjiashan M247 because it provides an ideal point of convergence between our respective specialties, and because our experience with the tomb’s archaeological context and scribal hands has convinced us as organizers of the potential richness of focused exchange thereupon.


Alain Thote (EPHE, CNRS-CRCAO, France)
Les manuscrits de la région de Jingzhou au IIe s. avant notre ère : contexte archéologique

La tombe 247 de Zhangjiashan n’ayant pas été bien publiée à ce jour, il est impossible d’en étudier la forme et le contenu avec toute la précision requise. On s’emploiera plutôt à mettre en perspective cette découverte en faisant une synthèse des découvertes de la région qui en sont contemporaines, et en explorant les différents problèmes soulevés par la présence de manuscrits dans un petit nombre de tombes, parmi des milliers. La question des inventaires funéraires qianci   遣冊 sera aussi évoquée.

Enno Giele (Universität Heidelberg, Germany)
Tombs and Money

Ancient coins play a crucial role in archaeology. The presence or absence of datable denominations is often the basis for finding date ranges for ancient tombs as well. Tomb no. 247 at Zhangjiashan, however, thanks to its abundant legal manuscripts that contain different kinds of statutes and reports on money and other economic matters, allows us to consider the uses of ancient money outside tombs as well. The present paper will attempt to investigate the roles that money and texts on money may play in our interpretations of the Zhangjiashan and comparable tombs.

Daniel P. Morgan (Sphère, CNRS & University Paris Diderot, SAW Project)
What can you do with a Calendar? Extracting Facts, Stories, and Information otherwise pertinent to your own Field from a Table of Dates

The ‘calendar’ is one of the most common genres of manuscript extant from the Qin-Han era, and it is also one of the least studied. This is for good reason: even in the rare cases where they provide support for noting matters of public/private business and taboos, calendars barely have any story to tell except indirectly, in aggregate, via mathematical analysis. Rather than delve ourselves into questions as foreboding as the nature and workings of time, most of us rely upon the analyses of others to make use of these documents, particularly as relates to dating the excavated corpora to which they belong. In this talk, I shall provide a layman’s summary of what has been done with such sources to date and what use I think that any scholar of early China might derive from them. To begin, I will provide a typology of ‘calendars’ recovered from this period and discuss where the untitled lunation table from Zhangjiashan tomb 247 fits into the broader scheme of civil timekeeping. From there, we will narrow our focus to Zhangjiashan and examine how this specific ‘calendar’ relates to the rest of the tomb contents in terms of textual production, date, and function. Importantly, we will ask, for example, how the date of excavated ‘calendars’ are determined and what relation-ship we should expect them to bear with adjacent materials; we will also ask what handwriting analysis might reveal about the copying of the more evidently ‘personal’ texts in a given tomb. Above all, the question will be ‘How do I, as a scholar of administrative, medical, philosophical, or literary text, make simple use of calendars, and what rules of thumb should I bear in mind when assessing.

Ulrich Lau (University of Hamburg, Germany)
The legal manuscripts from Zhangjiashan tomb 247 revisited

Distinctive peculiarities of the legal manuscripts from Zhangjiashan tomb 247 become apparent by comparing them with recently discovered legal manuscripts from Qin which have been purchased in 2007 on the antique market in Hongkong by the Yuelu Academy Changsha. They both contain a collection of exemplary criminal cases and a compilation of statutes and ordinances. Comparative study of these manuscripts promise to provide new evidence relating to the formation of Chinese legal terminology, of the system and hierarchy of punishments and of principles for determining punishment. Different stages and many details of criminal procedure can be analysed on the basis of exemplary criminal cases. The paper will show that there were different reasons for why a particular case had exemplary character and was suited for being included into the collection. The reasons varied depending on the category to which a case belongs. It is therefore necessary to classify the cases according to inherent formal and content-related criteria. The paper will mainly focus on those categories which were new in the manuscripts from Zhangjiashan. The investigation of both collections of legislative texts has indicated differences in the number of statutes, in the wording of statutory provisions and in the subsumption of individual provisions under statutes. Some reasons for the selection of statutes and ordinances will be explored. In a further step, the paper will deal with the legal manuscripts in relation to the tomb occupant. This raises the question of whether hints on his background, social status and profession can be found in the legal and other manuscripts. Finally, the legal manuscripts will be considered in the context of other tomb texts from Zhangjiashan, in order to determine whether and how law and other important fields of early Chinese knowledge were interrelated.

Thies Staack (CSMC, University of Hamburg, Germany)
Legal Manuscripts from Tombs: Some Reflections on their Possible Compilation, Use and Function

During the last forty years students of early Chinese law have – like all scholars in the field of early Chinese history more generally – witnessed a rapid increase of their sources. Manuscripts that were excavated from different sites such as tombs or ancient wells have highly enriched the picture we have of pre-imperial and early imperial law. While most research in this area was and still is done by historians of law who are mainly interested in texts and their content, comparatively few researchers have focused on the materiality and the context of the manuscripts which contain these texts, be they collections of statutes or ordinances, criminal case records, or others.This paper will investigate legal manuscripts from two different collections that were (certainly or at least very likely) excavated from early imperial tombs: The manuscripts from Zhangjiashan tomb no. 247 and those in the Yuelu Academy collection. How were the legal manuscripts in these collections compiled and what might have been the motives behind this? Were the manuscripts made especially for burial or had they originally been used by a legal official during his work or as teaching material? Do we find traces of use and/or editorial work (corrections, collation marks, etc.)? A codicological and palaeographical analysis could shed some light on these and related questions. And although the old question why (legal) manuscripts were put into tombs might not be solvable, it might prove useful to know whether the manuscripts from the two mentioned collections had a “life” before they became burial objects, and if so, what that life was probably like.

Saturday, November 28, 2015

A Companion to Chinese Art

Martin J. Powers & Katherine R. Tsiang

Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell 

Publication Year:

Exploring the history of art in China from its earliest incarnations to the present day, this comprehensive volume includes two dozen newly-commissioned essays spanning the theories, genres, and media central to Chinese art and theory throughout its history.

Table of Contents:

List of Figures xi
Notes on Contributors xv

Introduction 1
Martin J. Powers and Katherine R. Tsiang

Part I Production and Distribution 27

1 Court Painting 29
Patricia Ebrey

2 The Culture of Art Collecting in Imperial China 47
Scarlett Jang

3 Art, Print, and Cultural Discourse in Early Modern China 73
J. P. Park

4 Art and Early Chinese Archaeological Materials 91
Xiaoneng Yang

Part II Representation and Reality 113

5 Figure Painting: Fragments of the Precious Mirror 115
Shane McCausland

6 The Language of Portraiture in China 136
Dora C. Y. Ching

7 Visualizing the Divine in Medieval China 158
Katherine R. Tsiang

8 Landscape 177
Peter C. Sturman

9 Concepts of Architectural Space in Historical Chinese Thought 195
Cary Y. Liu

10 Time in Early Chinese Art 212
Eugene Y. Wang

Part III Theories and Terms 233

11 The Art of “Ritual Artifacts” (Liqi 禮器): Discourse and Practice 235
Wu Hung

12 Classification, Canon, and Genre 254
Richard Vinograd

13 Conceptual and Qualitative Terms in Historical Perspective 277
Ronald Egan

14 Imitation and Originality, Theory and Practice 293
Ginger Cheng-chi Hs¨u

15 Calligraphy 312
Qianshen Bai

16 Emptiness-Substance: Xushi 329
Jason C. Kuo

Part IV Objects and Persons 349

17 Artistic Status and Social Agency 351
Martin J. Powers

18 Ornament in China 371
Jessica Rawson

19 Folding Fans and Early Modern Mirrors 392
Antonia Finnane

20 Garden Art 410
Xin Wu

21 Commercial Advertising Art in 1840–1940s “China” 431
Tani E. Barlow

Part V Word and Image 455

22 Words in Chinese Painting 457
Alfreda Murck

23 On the Origins of Literati Painting in the Song Dynasty 474
Jerome Silbergeld

24 Poetry and Pictorial Expression in Chinese Painting 499
Susan Bush

25 Popular Literature and Visual Culture in Early Modern China 517
Jianhua Chen

Index 535

Wednesday, November 25, 2015




Publication Year:


Table of Contents:
はじめに――ジェンダーの中国史 小浜正子
むすめの墓・母の墓:墓から見た伝統中国の家族 佐々木愛
異父同母という関係:中国父系社会史研究序説 下倉渉
孝と貞節:中国近世における女性の規範 仙石知子
現代中国の家族の変容:少子化と母系ネットワークの顕現 小浜正子

呂后:〝悪女”にされた前漢初代の皇后 角谷常子
南朝の公主:貴族社会のなかの皇帝の娘たち 川合安
則天武后:女帝と祭祀 金子修一
江青:女優から毛沢東夫人、文革の旗手へ 秋山洋子

木蘭故事とジェンダー「越境」:五胡北朝期の社会からみる 板橋暁子
辮髪と軍服:清末の軍人と男性性の再構築 高嶋航
「鉄の娘」と女性民兵:文化大革命における性別役割への挑戦 江上幸子
中国大陸の国民統合の表象とポリティクス:エスニシティとジェンダーからみた近代 松本ますみ
[コラム]纏足 小川快之

貞節と淫蕩のあいだ:清代中国の寡婦をめぐって 五味知子
ジェンダーの越劇史:中国の女性演劇 中山文
中国における代理出産と「母性」:現代の「借り腹」 姚毅
セクシャリティのディスコース:同性愛をめぐる言説を中心に 白水紀子
[コラム]宦官 猪原達生

日本古代・中世における家族秩序:婚姻形態と妻の役割などから 伴瀬明美
彝族「女土官」考:明王朝の公認を受けた西南少数民族の女性首長たち 武内房司
『黙斎日記』にみる十六世紀朝鮮士大夫家の祖先祭祀と信仰 豊島悠果
十九世紀前半ベトナムにおける家族形態に関する一考察:花板張功族の嘱書の分析から 上田新也

Sunday, November 22, 2015

Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn 《春秋繁露》英譯本

Editors and Translators:
Sarah A. Queen and John S. Major

Publication Year:

Columbia University Press


A major resource expanding the study of early Chinese philosophy, religion, literature, and politics, this book features the first complete English-language translation of the Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu fanlu), one of the key texts of early Confucianism. The work is often ascribed to the Han scholar and court official Dong Zhongshu, but, as this study reveals, the text is in fact a compendium of writings by a variety of authors working within an interpretive tradition that spanned several generations, depicting a utopian vision of a flourishing humanity that they believed to be Confucius's legacy to the world.

The Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu) is a chronicle kept by the dukes of the state of Lu from 722 to 481 B.C.E. The Luxuriant Gems follows the interpretations of the Gongyang Commentary, whose transmitters belonged to a tradition that sought to explicate the special language of the Spring and Autumn. The Gongyang masters believed that the Spring and Autumn had been written by Confucius himself, employing subtle and esoteric phrasing to indicate approval or disapproval of important events and personages. The Luxuriant Gems augments Confucian ethical and philosophical teachings with chapters on cosmology, statecraft, and other topics drawn from contemporary non-Confucian traditions, reflecting the brilliance of intellectual life in the Han dynasty during the formative decades of the Chinese imperial state. 

To elucidate the text, Sarah A. Queen and John S. Major divide their translation into eight thematic sections with extensive introductions that address dating, authorship, authenticity, and the relationship between the original text and the evolving Gongyang approach.

Table of Contents:


Group 1: Exegetical Principles
1. King Zhuang of Chu
2. Jade Cup
3. Bamboo Grove
4. Jade Brilliance
5. The Quintessential and the Ornamental
6. The Kingly Way
7. Annihilated States, Part A
8. Annihilated States, Part B
9. Waxing and Waning in Accord with the Root
10. The Essentials of Covenants and Meetings
11. The Rectifying Thread
12. Ten Directives
13. Emphasize Governance
14. Images for the Regulation of Dress
15. Two Starting Points
16. Signs and Omens
17. Yu's Postface

Group 2: Monarchical Principles
18. Departing from and Conforming to the Fundamental
19. Establishing the Originating Spirit
20. Preserving Position and Authority
21. Investigating Achievement and Reputation
22. Comprehending the State as the Body

Group 3: Regulatory Principles
23. The Three Dynasties' Alternating Regulations of Simplicity and Refinement
24. Regulations on Officialdom Reflect Heaven
25. Yao and Shun Did Not Presumptuously Transfer [the Throne]; Tang and Wu Did Not Rebelliously Murder [Their Rulers]
26. Regulations on Dress
27. Regulating Limits
28. Ranking States

Group 4: Ethical Principles
29. Standards of Humaneness and Righteousness
30. The Necessity of [Being] Humane and Wise
31. For Nurturing the Self, Nothing Is More Important Than Righteous Principles
32. An Official Response to the King of Jiangdu: The Great Officers of Yue Cannot Be Considered Humane
33. Observing Virtue
34. Serving the Root
35. Deeply Examine Names and Designations
36. Substantiating Human Nature
37. The Lords of the Land
38. An Official Response Regarding the Five Phases
39. [Title and text are no longer extant]
40. [Title and text are no longer extant]
41. Heaven, the Maker of Humankind
42. The Meaning of the Five Phases

Group 5: Yin-Yang Principles
43. Yang Is Lofty, Yin Is Lowly
44. The Kingly Way Penetrates Three
45. Heaven's Prosperity
46. The Heavenly Distinctions Lie in Humans
47. The Positions of Yin and Yang
48. Yin and Yang End and Begin the Year
49. The Meaning of Yin and Yang
50. Yin and Yang Emerge, Withdraw, Ascend, and Descend
51. Heaven's Way Is Not Dualistic
52. Heat or Cold, Which Predominates?
53. Laying the Foundation of Righteousness
54. [Title and text are no longer extant]
55. The Correlates of the Four Seasons
56. Human Correlates of Heaven's Regularities
57. Things of the Same Kind Activate One Another

Group 6: Five-Phase Principles
58. The Mutual Engendering of the Five Phases
59. The Mutual Conquest of the Five Phases
60. Complying with and Deviating from the Five Phases
61. Controlling Water by Means of the Five Phases
62. Controlling Disorders by Means of the Five Phases
63. Aberrations of the Five Phases and Their Remedies
64. The Five Phases and Five Affairs

Group 7: Ritual Principles
65. Sayings Pertaining to the Suburban Sacrifice
66. The Principles of the Suburban Sacrifice
67. Sacrificial Rites of the Suburban Sacrifice
68. The Four [Seasonal] Sacrificial Rites
69. The Suburban Sacrifice
70. Following Orders
71. An Official Response Regarding the Suburban Sacrifice
72. Presenting Gifts to Superiors
73. Hymn to the Mountains and Rivers
74. Seeking Rain
75. Stopping Rain
76. The Principles of Sacrificial Rites

Group 8: Heavenly Principles
77. Conform to Heaven's Way
78. The Conduct of Heaven and Earth (Lau version)
78A. The Conduct of Heaven and Earth (Su Yu version)
79. The Origins of Severity and Beneficence
80. In Imitation of Heaven's Activities (Lau version)
80A. In Imitation of Heaven's Activities (Su Yu version)
81. Heaven, Earth, Yin, and Yang (Lau version)
81A. Heaven, Earth, Yin, and Yang (Su Yu version)
82. The Way of Heaven Bestows (Lau version)
82A. The Way of Heaven Bestows (Su Yu version)

Appendix A. Biographies of the Confucian Scholars
Appendix B. The Biography of Dong Zhongshu
Selected Bibliography

Thursday, November 19, 2015

Discourses of Purity in Transcultural Perspective (300–1600)

Matthias Bley , Nikolas Jaspert andStefan Köck


Publication Year:

This volume comprises fifteen articles on the differing functions that purity, impurity, pollution and related categories could fulfil in Asian and European religions and societies of the 3rd to 17th century c.E. They focus processes of religious demarcation and transfer.

Table of Contents:
An Introduction to Discourses of Purity in Transcultural Perspective

Section 1 Material Purity

Chapter 1 Early Medieval Churches as Cultic Space between Material and Ethical Purity

Chapter 2 Some Brief Notes on Purity in Chinese Daoism

Chapter 3 An Almost Tangible Presence: Some Thoughts on Material Purity among Medieval European Jews

Section 2 Ethical and Moral Purity

Chapter 4 From 'Clean' to 'Pure' in Everyday Life in Late Imperial China: A Preliminary Enquiry

Chapter 5 Discourses on Purity in Western Christianity in the Early and High Middle Ages 

Section 3 Purity of Spirit and Thought

Chapter 6 Purity between Semantics and History: Notes on Daoist Soteriology and Interreligious Encounters in Early Medieval China

Chapter 7 Purity of Language: A Short-lived Concept in Medieval Hebrew Poetry

Section 4 Purity of Cult

Chapter 8 Domum immundam a perversis violata mundavit. Viking Defilement in Early Medieval Francia 

Chapter 9 Washing Away the Dirt of the World of Desire-On Origins and Developments of Notions of Ritual Purity in Japanese Mountain Religions 

Chapter 10 Patterns of Intensification of the Laws on Ritual Purity in Medieval Jewish Ashkenaz

Section 5 Concepts of Textual Purity

Chapter 11 Religious Texts and the Islamic Purity Regime

Section 6 Concepts of Genealogical Purity

Chapter 12 Sons of Damnation: Franciscans, Muslims, and Christian Purity

Chapter 13 Purifying the Pure: The Visuddhimagga, Forest-Dwellers and the Dynamics of Individual and Collective Prestige in Theravāda Buddhism

Chapter 14 Registers of Genealogical Purity in Classical Islam


Wednesday, November 18, 2015


森部豊 (Yutaka Moribe)


Publication Year:



Table of Contents:

総論 ソグド人と東ユーラシアの文化交渉―ソグド人の東方活動史研究序説 森部豊


ソグド文字の縦書きは何時始まったか 吉田豊 
中国におけるソグド姓の歴史 斉藤達也
唐代中国におけるソグド人と仏教 中田美絵
ソグド人の墓と葬具―中国とソグディアナ 影山悦子


『天聖令』と唐のソグド人 石見清裕
トゥルファンにおけるソグド人 荒川正晴
ソグド人と敦煌 赤木崇敏
長安・洛陽のソグド人 福島恵
北朝末〜唐初におけるソグド人軍府と軍団 山下将司
八世紀半ば〜十世紀の北中国政治史とソグド人 森部豊


突厥碑文から見るトルコ人とソグド人 鈴木宏節 
突厥とソグド人―漢文石刻史料を用いて 齊藤茂雄
西突厥におけるソグド人 大澤孝
ソグドからウイグルへ 松井太

Tuesday, November 17, 2015

Early Medieval China 21 《中國中古研究》第21期 (2015)

Table of Contents:

Memo From the President:

Memo from the President of the Early Medieval China Group
Keith Knapp
pp. 1–1


From Spirited Youth to Loyal Official: Life Writing and Didacticism in the Jin shu Biography of Wang Dao 王導
Matthew V. Wells
pp. 3–20

There's No Place Like Home: Xie Lingyun's Representation of His Estate in “Rhapsody on Dwelling in the Mountains” (山居賦)
Wendy Swartz
pp. 21–37

Mapping Gender and Poetic Role in Early Medieval Poetry
Qiulei Hu
pp. 38–62

Literary Controversy at the Liang Court Revisited
Nicholas Morrow Williams
pp. 63–92

In Memoriam:  

Richard B. Mather
pp. 93–93

Tuesday, November 10, 2015


豊田久 (Toyoda Hidashi)


Publication Year:

Table of Contents:

第一章 周王朝における君主権の構造について


 第一節 「天命の膺受」者と「四方の匍有」者(天子と王)について

 第二節 「天命の膺受」者の性格について〔「上下の匍有」者と「四



 第三節 「天命の膺受」者と世襲主義の結合について

 第四節 「天命の膺受」者から「四方の匍有」者へ(天子から王へ)

第二章 周王朝と「成」の構造について

 第一節 「成周」と「四方」について

 第二節 「中国」(「成」周)の内と外について

 第三節 西周青銅器の銘文上に見える「成」の字の用例について




第三章 周王朝と弓彤考 ―「四方の匍有」者(王)の性格について―

 第一節 異族が引き起こす国際的紛争を鎮定した功の場合

 第二節 封建の場合

 第三節 射礼の場合

第四章 周王朝と「上下」考―「上下の匍有」者(天子)の性格について―

 第一節 現天子(共王)が、周王朝の開設者・文王、武王の功績を


 第二節 「上下の匍有」と「豊年」について

 第三節 「上下の匍有」の目的とその意味について

 第四節 殷王朝と「上下」、そして祈年について

 第五節 「上下を匍有して」と「䢔わせて万邦を受く」との結合について

第五章 周王朝とその儀礼
         ― 王と臣下、又は神との間の意志の伝達方法について―

 第一節 王と臣下の場合

 第二節 王と神の場合

第六章 西周金文に見える、王の出自する「家」について

 第一節 王の「家」と婦人の婚姻について

 第二節 王の「家」、臣下側の「家」について

第七章 周王朝の君主とその位相について―豊かさと安寧―

 第一節 「天命の膺受」と「受民、受疆土」について〔「受民」の「民」は



 第二節 「四方の匍有」と国際的な安寧秩序〔「四方」(「万邦」)と国



 第三節 周王朝の君位継承儀礼について


Saturday, November 7, 2015

Entombed Epigraphy and Commemorative Culture in Early Medieval China: A Brief History of Early Muzhiming

Timothy M. Davis

Publication Year:



In Entombed Epigraphy and Commemorative Culture Timothy M. Davis presents a history of early muzhiming—the most versatile and persistent commemorative form employed in the elite burials of pre-modern China. 

While previous scholars have largely overlooked the contemporary religious, social, and cultural functions of these epigraphic objects, this study directly addresses these areas of concern, answering such basic questions as: Why were muzhiming buried in tombs? What distinguishes commemorative biography from dynastic history biography? And why did muzhiming develop into an essential commemorative genre esteemed by the upper classes? 

Furthermore, this study reveals how aspiring families used muzhiming to satisfy their obligations to deceased ancestors, establish a multi-generational sense of corporate identity, and strengthen their claims to elite status.

Table of Contents:


1 The Social Functions of Early Medieval Muzhiming

2 The Religious Functions of Entombed Epigraphy

3 Mortuary Epigraphy Moves Underground

4 Entombed Epigraphy in an Era of Political Instability

5 Historiographical Biography and Commemorative Biography

6 The Rise of Muzhiming as a Literary Genre


Appendix A: Entombed Epitaphs from the Western Jin and Eastern Jin Dynasties 

Appendix B: Northern Wei Entombed Epitaphs Prior to 494 CE

Wednesday, November 4, 2015




Publication Year:

Table of Contents:

序 章

本 編

第一章 漢代文書行政における書信の位置付け

第二章 前漢後半期の書信簡牘の分類と検討―書信簡牘試論―

第三章 後漢代の公文書と書信

第四章 中国古代文書行政における書信利用の濫觴

第五章 秦・漢時代地方行政における意思決定過程

付 編

第一章 簡牘の再利用―居延漢簡を中心に―

第二章 秦・漢時代の牘について

第三章 中国古代簡牘の分類について

結 語


Tuesday, November 3, 2015

Eastern Han (AD 25-220) Tombs in Sichuan

Xuan Chen 陳軒

Publication Year:

Verlag: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd. 


This work explores the many factors underlying the extended popularity of the cliff tomb, a local burial form in the Sichuan Basin in China during the Eastern Han dynasty (AD 25-220). The development of the cliff tomb was linked to a complex set of connections involved with burial forms, and continued through associations with many other contemporary burial practices: brick chamber tombs, stone chamber tombs, and princely rock-cut tombs. These connections and links formed to a large extent through the incorporation of the Sichuan region within the Empire, which began in the fourth century BC. It was as part of this overall context that a series of factors contributed to the formation and popularity of the cliff tombs in Sichuan. The hilly topography and the soft sandstone, easy to cut, provided a natural resource for the development of cliff tombs. The present book, therefore, analyses the decisions behind the exploitation of this natural resource, which were also affected by many complexities rooted in the social background. The inherent nature of the cliff tomb structure is fully explored, followed by an investigation into the corresponding innovations involving pictorial carvings and burial objects. The meanings behind the seemingly continuous ‘family’ associated with the cliff tomb structure are also explored, as the construction of the tomb resulted from the continuous endeavours of many generations, and the physical appearance of the cliff tomb becomes a metaphor for family prosperity.

Table of Contents:

List of figures

Chapter 1 Introduction

1. Major Burial Types in Eastern Han
2. Development of Burial Form in the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220) 
3. The Social Background 
4. Textual Sources 
5. Archaeological Discoveries 
6. Literature Review 
7. Research Approaches 
8. Chapter Outline 

Chapter 2 Tomb Structure 

1. Archaeological Evidence 
2. Stone as Building Material
3. Wooden Architecture as Framework of Representation
4. Important Structure for Ritual and Sacrifice 
5. Conclusion 

Chapter 3 Pictorial Carvings 

1. Pictorial Carvings in Stone and Brick Chamber Tombs:
Communication between Sichuan and East China
2. Pictorial Carvings in the Shrine 
3. Pictorial Carvings and Memorial in the Cliff Tomb 
4. Pictorial carvings and the Representation of Ritual in the Cliff Tomb 
5. Conclusion 

Chapter 4 Burial Objects

1. Plan of Burial Objects
2. The Money Tree 
3. Stone Coffin
4. Conclusion 

Chapter 5 Conclusion 


Appendix 1 Stories of Filial Sons and Eminent Men and Women Carved
in the Cliff tombs in Sichuan 

Appendix 2 Eastern Han High Officials of the Areas Outside Sichuan
from the Sichuan Area 

Appendix 3 Eastern Han Cliff Tombs Excavated in the Sichuan Area