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Monday, July 31, 2017

敦煌・吐魯番文書の世界とその時代

Editors:
土肥義和 (Dohi Yoshikazu); 氣賀澤保規 (KEGASAWA Yasunori)

Publisher:
汲古書院

Publication Date:
April, 2017



Table of Contents:

序 …… 氣賀澤保規

Ⅰ 制度・行政文書

伊藤敏雄 樓蘭出土漢文文字資料中の簿籍と公文書について
――殘紙の簿籍と公文書を中心に――

町田隆吉 河西出土五胡時代「板」(官吏辭令書)小攷

關尾史郎 「貲簿」の周邊
――北涼時代の簿籍と税制――

王 素 高昌王令形式總論
(河内 桂譯)

荒川正晴 通行證としての公驗と牒式文書

土肥義和 唐代における均田法施行の史料雜抄

劉 安志 唐代解文初探
――敦煌吐魯番文書を中心に――
(速水 大譯)

Ⅱ 地域と社会

妹尾達彦 唐長安の都市核と進奏院
――進奏院状(P3547・S1156)をてがかりに――

古瀬奈津子 書儀・往來物を通じてみた日唐親族の比較
石田勇作 9~10世紀敦煌地域社會と組織の一斷面
――P3249v文書を手掛かりに――

赤木崇敏 曹氏歸義軍節度使系譜攷
――2つの家系から見た10~11世紀の敦煌史――

吉田 豊 コータンのユダヤ・ソグド商人?

松井 太 トゥルファン=ウイグル人社會の連保組織

Ⅲ 文化と思想

朱 玉麒 トルファン文書にみえる漢文文學史料
(西村陽子譯)

張 娜麗 玄奘の譯場と玄應の行實
――敦煌・吐魯番文獻と日本古寫經の伝えるもの――

伊藤美重子 敦煌寫本「醜女縁起」の依據する經典の再檢討
――『賢愚經』と『雜寶藏經』の醜女説話をめぐって――

岩本篤志 敦煌文獻と傳存文獻の間
――唐代の醫藥書『新修本草』と『千金方』を中心として――

丸山裕美子 磯部武男氏所藏「朋友書儀」斷簡について(再論)
――「敦煌秘笈」及び中村不折舊藏吐魯番寫本「朋友書儀」との關係をめぐって――

余 欣 中古時期における瑞應圖書の源流
――敦煌文獻と日本寫本の總合考察――
(山口正晃譯)

史料紹介
吉田章人 東洋文庫における IOM RAS 所藏非佛教漢語文書の整理と考察

圖版一覽
執筆者一覽

Friday, July 28, 2017

Behaving Badly in Early and Medieval China

Editors:
N. Harry Rothschild and Leslie V. Wallace

Publisher:
University of Hawaii Press

Publication Date:
August 31, 2017




Abstract:

Behaving Badly in Early and Medieval China presents a rogues’ gallery of treacherous regicides, impious monks, cutthroat underlings, ill-bred offspring, and disloyal officials. It plumbs the dark matter of the human condition, placing front and center transgressive individuals and groups traditionally demonized by Confucian annalists and largely shunned by modern scholars. The work endeavors to apprehend the actions and motivations of these men and women, whose conduct deviated from normative social, cultural, and religious expectations.

Early chapters examine how core Confucian bonds such as those between parents and children, and ruler and minister, were compromised, even severed. The living did not always reverently pay homage to the dead, children did not honor their parents with due filiality, a decorous distance was not necessarily observed between sons and stepmothers, and subjects often pursued their own interests before those of the ruler or the state. The elasticity of ritual and social norms is explored: Chapters on brazen Eastern Han (25–220) mourners and deviant calligraphers, audacious falconers, volatile Tang (618–907) Buddhist monks, and drunken Song (960–1279) literati reveal social norms treated not as universal truths but as debated questions of taste wherein political and social expedience both determined and highlighted individual roles within larger social structures and defined what was and was not aberrant.

A Confucian predilection to “valorize [the] civil and disparage the martial” and Buddhist proscriptions on killing led literati and monks alike to condemn the cruelty and chaos of war. The book scrutinizes cultural attitudes toward military action and warfare, including those surrounding the bloody and capricious world of the Zuozhuan (Chronicle of Zuo), the relentless violence of the Five Dynasties and Ten States periods (907–979), and the exploits of Tang warrior priests―a series of studies that complicates the rhetoric by situating it within the turbulent realities of the times. By the end of this volume, readers will come away with the understanding that behaving badly in early and medieval China was not about morality but perspective, politics, and power.


Table of Contents:

There are maggots in my soup! : medieval accounts of unfilial children / Keith N. Knapp

Negative role models: unfilial stories in Song miscellaneous writing / Cong Ellen Zhang

Copulating with one's stepmother—or birth mother? / Paul R. Goldin

Intransigent and corrupt officials during the early Han / Anthony Barbieri-Low

Ritual without rules: Han-Dynasty mourning practice revisited / Miranda Brown and Anna-Alexandra Fodde-Regue

Bad writing: cursive calligraphy and the ethics of orthography in the Eastern Han Dynasty / Vincent S. Leung

Wild youths and fallen officials: falconry and moral opprobrium in early medieval China / Leslie V. Wallace

Stopping drinking: alcohol, alcoholism, and Song literati / Edward van-Bibber Orr

Flouting, flashing and favoritism: an insouciant Buddhist monk bares his midriff before the Confucian court / N. Harry Rothschild

Running amok in early Chinese narrative / Eric Henry

"Wolves shepherding the people": cruelty and violence in the Five dynasties / Wang Hongjie

A "villain-monk" brought down by a villein-general: a forgotten page in Tang monastic warfare and state-samgha relations / Chen Jinhua

Martial monks without borders: was Sinseong a traitor or did he open the gate to a pan-Asian Buddhist realm? / Kelly Carlton


Sunday, July 23, 2017

『「義」から「事」へ:春秋學小史』

Author:
岩本憲司 (Kenji Iwamoto)

Publisher:
汲古書院

Publication Date:
June, 2017




Table of Contents:

はじめに
一、公羊三世說の成立過程
二、何休三世異辭說試論
三、春秋學に於ける「孔子說經」說話について
四、漢代春秋學に關する二、三の問題――『春秋繁露』兪序篇と『史記』太史公自序
五、災異說の構造解析――何休の場合
六、災異說の構造解析――董仲舒の場合
七、「屬辭比事」とその背景
八、義から事へ――『左氏傳』の出現
九、緯書と古文學――左氏說を中心に
十、《書評》佐川修著『春秋學論考』

《付錄一》
十一、相勝から相生へ――兩漢に於ける五德終始說の變遷に關する一般公式
十二、“白魚と赤烏”の話――兩漢に於ける五德終始說の變遷に關する特異事例

《付錄二》
『春秋學用語集』補遺

おわりに


Tuesday, July 18, 2017

Stalk Divination: A Newly Discovered Alternative to the I Ching

Editors and translators:
Constance A. Cook and Zhao Lu (趙璐)

Publication Date:
July, 2017

Publisher:
Oxford University Press 




Abstract:

This book presents for the first time a full translation and analysis of a newly discovered bamboo divination manual from the fourth century BCE China, called the Stalk Divination Method (Shifa 筮法). It was used as an alternative to the better-known Zhouyi (popularly known as the I-Ching). The Shifa manual presents a competing method of interpreting the trigrams, the most basic elements of the distinctive sixty-four hexagrams in the Zhouyi. This newly discovered method looks at the combination of four trigrams as a fluid, changeable pattern or unit reflective of different circumstances in an elite man's life. Unlike the Zhouyi, this new manual provides case studies that explain how to read the trigram patterns for different topics. This method is unprecedented in early China and has left no trace in later Chinese divination traditions. Shifa must be understood then as a competing voice in the centuries before the Zhouyi became the hegemonic standard. The authors of this book have translated this new text and "cracked the code" of its logic. This new divination will change our understanding of Chinese divination and bring new light to Zhouyi studies.

Table of Contents:

Preface
Introduction
General Principles of Shifa Interpretation
Reflections of Shifa-style Divination in Other Texts
Transcription and Translation

Thursday, July 13, 2017

The Songs of Chu: An Anthology of Ancient Chinese Poetry by Qu Yuan and Others

Author: 
Qu Yuan
(Edited and translated by Gopal Sukhu)

Publisher:
Columbia University Press

Publication Date:
July, 2017




Abstract:

Sources show Qu Yuan (?340–278 BCE) was the first person in China to become famous for his poetry, so famous in fact that the Chinese celebrate his life with a national holiday called Poet's Day, or the Dragon Boat Festival. His work, which forms the core of the The Songs of Chu, the second oldest anthology of Chinese poetry, derives its imagery from shamanistic ritual. Its shaman hymns are among the most beautiful and mysterious liturgical works in the world. The religious milieu responsible for their imagery supplies the backdrop for his most famous work, Li sao, which translates shamanic longing for a spirit lover into the yearning for an ideal king that is central to the ancient philosophies of China.

Qu Yuan was as important to the development of Chinese literature as Homer was to the development of Western literature. This translation attempts to replicate what the work might have meant to those for whom it was originally intended, rather than settle for what it was made to mean by those who inherited it. It accounts for the new view of the state of Chu that recent discoveries have inspired.

Table of Contents:

Acknowledgments

Introduction

1. Nine Songs (Jiuge)

2. "Leaving My Troubles" ("Li sao")

3. "Ask the Sky" ("Tian wen")

4. Nine Cantos (Jiuzhang)

5. "Wandering Far Away" ("Yuan you")

6. "The Diviner" ("Bu ju") and "The Fisherman" ("Yufu")

7. Nine Variations (Jiubian)

8. "Summoning the Soul" ("Zhao hun")

9. "The Great Summoning" ("Da zhao")

10. "Regretting the Vows" ("Xi shi")

11. "Mourning Qu Yuan" ("Diao Qu Yuan") and "The Owl Rhapsody" ("Fu fu")

12. "I Lament It Was Not My Destiny" ("Ai shiming")

13. "Calling the Hermit Back" ("Zhao yinshi")

Appendix: Dating the Works in the Chuci

Selected Bibliography

Index

Friday, July 7, 2017

Japanese for Sinologists: A Reading Primer with Glossaries and Translations

Authors:
Joshua A. Fogel and Fumiko Joo

Publication Date:
July, 2017

Publisher:
University of California Press



Abstract:

For many years it has been known that scholars of Chinese history and culture must keep abreast of scholarship in Japan, but the great majority have found that to be difficult. Japanese for Sinologists is the first textbook dedicated to helping Sinologists learn to read scholarly Japanese writing on China. It includes essays by eminent scholars, vocabulary lists with romanizations, English translations, grammar notes, and a wealth of general information not easily available anywhere.

The reader will be introduced to a wide panoply of famed Sinologists and their writing styles. The first chapters introduce some basic information on dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other resources for research on China in Japanese materials, including a list of names and terms from Chinese political, historical, and cultural events. The chapters cover a range of topics and time periods and highlight authors, all well-known Japanese scholars, with an appendix of English translations of all the articles. After completing this book, the user will be able to begin his or her own reading in Japanese Sinology without the extensive apparatus this volume supplies.


Table of Contents:

Introduction

Translation Tables for Sinologists

Japanese Dictionaries Aimed at Sinologists

Oshima Toshikazu, "Qiu Jin"

Ono Kazuko, "Introduction: a history of research on the Donglin party"

Takeuchi Yoshimi, "Issues in our view of Sun Yat-Sen"

Shimada Kenji, "The commoner nature of culture in the Ming period"

Miyazaki Ichisada, "Was the Jingchu 4 mirror produced at the Daifang commandery?"

Yoshikawa Kōjirō̄

Niida Noboru, "Fengjian 封建 and feudalism in Chinese society"

Naitō Torajirō, "Cultural life in modern China"

Sunday, July 2, 2017

[Dissertation] Dynamic Flows of Copper and Copper Alloys across the Prehistoric Eurasian Steppe from 2000 to 300 BCE

Author:
Yiu-Kang Hsu

Advisor:
Mark Pollard, Jessica Rawson

School:
University of Oxford

Defended:
2016

Abstract:

The study of ancient Eurasian metallurgy has been suffering from (or preoccupied by) two conventional perspectives. One is that of the diffusion model emphasising the importance of the settled empires of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, of south-eastern Europe and of China (Shennan 1986, 1993; Kristiansen 1984). The supremacy of these 'cradles' of early civilisation is marked not only by social hierarchies, but also by technological inventions such as metal production. This view sees the mobile populations of the Eurasian steppe as occupying the "hinterland" of these early settled states in the south, believing that the emergence of metal technologies in the Steppe was the result of the expansions of "advanced" civilisations. The second perspective is rooted in the provenance study which traces metal objects back to their geological sources (Pernicka 2014). It assumes that chemical and isotopic composition of metal is static and only reflects a simple linear relationship between artefacts and specific ore deposits.

Drawing from a legacy database of approximately 9,000 chemical analyses of copper-based artefacts, this thesis rejects the simplicity of both the diffusion and the provenance models. While admitting that the use of metal might have originated from western Asia, the development of metallurgy in the Eurasian steppe should be understood on its own terms. It is constantly re-shaped by vigorous circulation of metal artefacts across mobile communities on a regional or inter-regional scale. This observation is based on the application of a new innovative framework to interpret the patterns of compositional data (Bray et al. 2015). This novel method argues that metal can flow, quite literally, from one object to another as it is re-melted, re-mixed and re-cast in different shapes and colours, depending on different social contexts. Thermodynamic modelling and modern experiments have shown that during the copper melt, some volatile elements in copper alloys (e.g. arsenic, antimony, and zinc) are preferentially removed through oxidative loss. Instead, some elements, such as silver, nickel, and gold, tend to be preserved in metals. These predictable patterns of elemental losses provide valuable information to trace the directional flow of metal units between regions/cultures, if we combine chemical data of metal artefacts properly with archaeological context, landscape and chronology.
By using this new methodology, several routes of copper supplies have been identified in the Steppe during different periods. They feature the exchange of metals within regional networks, fuelled by local copper sources. The Urals, central Kazakhstan, the Altai, and the Minusinsk-Tuva regions were the primary copper production centres that developed distinct trace-element chemistry and artefact typology. By contrast, alloying techniques employed by steppe peoples, generally demonstrate the long-distance connections based on two major metallurgical practices: arsenical copper in the western steppe and tin-bronze in the eastern steppe. Copper-arsenic production was concentrated in the Caucasus but the recycling of its arsenical copper became more apparent further away towards the Urals. On the other hand, the invention of tin-bronze metallurgy was triggered by the formation of the Seima-Turbino phenomenon (c. 2100- 1800/1700 BC) in the Altai, and this alloying tradition was amplified by the emergence of the Andronovo culture (c. 1700-1400 BC) in the Ural-Kazakh steppe. Tin-bronze ornaments, in particular, were exchanged between eastern and western mobile communities over a considerable distance, through the mechanism of pastoral seasonal movements.

In conclusion, traditional views of diffusion and provenance theories cannot be uncritically applied to the inception of ancient metallurgy in the Eurasian steppe. Mobile pastoralists developed multi-regional production hubs based on the accessibility of ore resources and the variations in subsistence strategies. Although steppe metalwork revealed some technological borrowings from settled communities, steppe peoples had transformed them into locally adapted products that could fit into their socio-economic systems. That is, when dealing with the issues of Eurasian metallurgy, we should acknowledge the complexity of human engagement with metal and look into subtler differences in cultural context, landscape, and ideology.