Tuesday, August 29, 2017

Buddhism and Medicine: An Anthology of Premodern Sources

C. Pierce Salguero

Columbia University Press

Publication Date:
September 2017


From its earliest days, Buddhism has been closely intertwined with medicine. Buddhism and Medicine is a singular collection showcasing the generative relationship and mutual influence between these fields across premodern Asia. The anthology combines dozens of English-language translations of premodern Buddhist texts with contextualizing introductions by leading international scholars in Buddhist studies, the history of medicine, and a range of other fields.

These sources explore in detail medical topics ranging from the development of fetal anatomy in the womb to nursing, hospice, dietary regimen, magical powers, visualization, and other healing knowledge. Works translated here include meditation guides, popular narratives, ritual manuals, spells texts, monastic disciplinary codes, recipe inscriptions, philosophical treatises, poetry, works by physicians, and other genres. All together, these selections and their introductions provide a comprehensive overview of Buddhist healing throughout Asia. They also demonstrate the central place of healing in Buddhist practice and in the daily life of the premodern world.

Table of Contents:


Doctrinal Considerations

1. Illness, Cure, and Care: Selections from the Pāli Canon, by Dhivan Thomas Jones

2. The Healing Potential of the Awakening Factors in Early Buddhist Discourse, by Anālayo

3. Curing/Curating Illness: Selections from the Chapter on the “Sufferings of Illness” from A Grove of Pearls from the Garden of Dharma, by Alexander O. Hsu

4. Understanding the Dosa: A Summary of the Art of Medicine from the Sūtra of Golden Light, by C. Pierce Salguero

5. Fetal Suffering in the Descent Into the Womb Sūtra, by Amy Paris Langenberg

6. Health and Sickness of Body and Mind: Selections from the Yogācāra-bhūmi, by Dan Lusthaus

7. Overcoming Illness with Insight: Kokan Shiren’s Treatise on the Nature of Illness and Its Manifestations, by Edward Drott

8. Karma in the Bathhouse: The Sūtra on Bathing the Sangha in the Bathhouse, by C. Pierce Salguero

9. Liberating the Whole World: Sudhana’s Meeting with Samantanetra from the Sūtra of the Entry Into the Realm of Reality, by William J. Giddings

Healing and Monastic Discipline

10. Medical Practice as Wrong Livelihood: Selections from the Pāli Discourses, Vinaya, and Commentaries, by David Fiordalis

11. Nuns, Laywomen, and Healing: Three Rules from a Sanskrit Nuns Disciplinary Code, by Amy Paris Langenberg

12. Stories of Healing from the Section on Medicines in the Pāli Vinaya, by David Fiordalis

13. Rules on Medicines from the Five-Part Vinaya of the Mahīśāsaka School, by C. Pierce Salguero

14. Food and Medicine in the Chinese Vinayas: Daoxuan’s Emended Commentary on Monastic Practices from the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya, by J. E. E. Pettit

15. Toilet Care in Buddhist Monasteries: Health, Decency, and Ritual, by Ann Heirman and Mathieu Torck

16. Health Care in Indian Monasteries: Selections from Yijing's Record of the Inner Law Sent Home from the Southern Seas, by Christoph Kleine

Buddhist Healers

17. Two Sūtras on Healing and Healers from the Chinese Canon, by Marcus Bingenheimer

18. The Buddha Heals: Past and Present Lives, by Phyllis Granoff

19. The Buddha's Past Life as a Snakebite Doctor: The Visa-vanta Jātaka, by Michael Slouber

20. The Training and Treatments of an Indian Doctor in a Buddhist Text: A Sanskrit Biography of Jīvaka, by Gregory Schopen

21. A Selection of Buddhist Healing Narratives from East Asia, by C. Pierce Salguero

22. The Buddha and the Bath Water: How the Bodhisattva Gyōki Founded Koya Temple, by D. Max Moerman

23. Esoteric Ritual Remedies: Kūkai’s Cures for Emperor Kōnin, by Pamela Winfield

24. “The Grief of Kings Is the Suffering of Their Subjects”: A Cambodian King's Twelfth-Century Network of Hospitals, by Peter D. Sharrock and Claude Jacques
Healing Rites

25. Help for the Sick, Dying and Misbegotten: A Sanskrit Version of the Sūtra of Bhaisajyaguru, by Gregory Schopen

26. The Sūtra on the Dhāranī of the Vast, Complete, and Unobstructed Great Compassion of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara with a Thousand Hands and Thousand Eyes, by William J. Giddings

27. Tantric Medicine in a Buddhist Proto-Tantra, by Michael Slouber

28. Healing Dhāranīs: A Collection of Medieval Spells from the Taishō Tripitaka, by C. Pierce Salguero

29. Seals of the Bodhisattva: A Buddhist Talismanic Seal Manual from 
Dunhuang, by Paul Copp

30. “The Ritual Altar of Kundalī Vajra for Treating Illnesses” from the Collected Dhāranī Sūtras, by Josh Capitanio

31. Curing with Karma and Confession: Two Short Liturgies from Dunhuang, by Stephen F. Teiser

32. Childbirth in Early Medieval Japan: Ritual Economies and Medical Emergencies in Procedures During the Day of the Royal Consort’s Labor, by Anna Andreeva

33. The Ox-Bezoar Empowerment for Fertility and Safe Childbirth: Selected Readings from the Shingon Ritual Collections, by Benedetta Lomi

34. The Verses on the Victor’s Armor: A Pāli Text Used for Protection and Healing in Thailand, by Justin Thomas McDaniel

35. Selections from a Mongolian Manual of Buddhist Medicine, by Vesna A. Wallace

Meditation as Cure and Illness

36. Healing Sicknesses Caused by Meditation: “The Enveloping Butter Contemplation” from the Secret Essential Methods for Curing Meditation Sickness, by Eric Greene

37. Healing with Meditation: “Treating Illness” from Zhiyi’s Shorter Treatise on Śamatha and Vipaśyanā, by C. Pierce Salguero

38. Getting Sick Over Nothing: Hyesim and Hakuin on the Maladies of Meditation, by Juhn Ahn

39. Buddhist Method as Medicine: The Chan Materia Medica and its Ming Dynasty Elaboration, by Robban Toleno

40. Tantric Meditations to Increase the Forces of Life: Making Manifest the Three Deities of Longevity, by Matthew T. Kapstein

41. Rangjung Dorjé’s Key to the Essential Points of Wind and Mind, by Douglas Duckworth

42. Treating Disorders of the Subtle Winds in Tibetan Buddhism, by Todd P. Marek and Charles Jamyang Oliphant of Rossie

43. How to Deal with Wind Illnesses: Two Short Meditation Texts from Buddhist Southeast Asia, by Andrew Skilton and Phibul Choompolpaisal

Hybridity in Buddhist Healing

44. Correlative Cosmology, Moral Rectitude, and Buddhist Notions of Health: Selections from the Sūtra of Trapusa and Bhallika, by Ori Tavor

45. Apotropaic Substances as Medicine in Buddhist Healing Methods: Nāgārjuna’s Treatise on the Five Sciences, by Dominic Steavu

46. Dung, Hair, and Mungbeans: Household Remedies in the Longmen Recipes, by Michael Stanley-Baker and Dolly Yang

47. “The Mysterious Names on the Hands and Fingers”: Healing Hand Mnemonics in Medieval Chinese Buddhism, by Marta Hanson

48. Selections on Illness Divination from Bodhidharma’s Treasure of the Palm, by Stephanie Homola

49. Buddhist Health, Diet, and Sex Advice in Ancient Korea, by Don Baker and Hyunsook Lee

50. Vessel Examination in the Medicine of the Moon King, by William A. McGrath

51. Moxibustion for Demons: Oral Transmission on Corpse-Vector Disease, by Andrew Macomber

Buddhism in the Medical Traditions

52. “Indian Massage” from Sun Simiao’s Prescriptions Worth a Thousand in Gold, by Michael Stanley-Baker

53. Sun Simiao on Medical Ethics: “The Perfect Integrity of the Great Physician” from Prescriptions Worth a Thousand in Gold, by Nathan Sivin

54. Using the Golden Needle: Nāgārjuna Bodhisattva’s Ophthalmological Treatise and Other Sources in the Essentials of Medical Treatment, by Katja Triplett

55. Buddhism in Chosōn Dynasty Medical Compilations, by Kang Yeonseok and Taehyung Lee

56. Determining Karmic Illness: Kajiwara Shōzen’s Treatment of Rai/Leprosy in His Book of the Simple Physician, by Andrew Goble

57. Selections from Miraculous Drugs of the South, by the Vietnamese Buddhist Monk-Physician Tue Tinh, by C. Michele Thompson

58. The Dong Nhân Pagoda and the Publication of Mister Lazy’s Medical Encyclopedia, by Leslie E. de Vries

59. An Abhidhamma Perspective: Causes of Illness in a Burmese Buddhist Medical System, by Pyi Phyo Kyaw

60. Jewels in Medicines: On the Processing and Efficacy of Precious Pills According to the Four Treatises, by Barbara Gerke and Florian Ploberger

61. The Final Doubt and the Entrustment of Tibetan Medical Knowledge, by Barbara Gerke and Florian Ploberger

62. Did the Buddha Really Author the Classic Tibetan Medical Text? A Critical Examination from The Lamp to Dispel Darkness, by Janet Gyatso

Appendix: Geographical Table of Contents

List of Contributors

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