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Monday, November 21, 2016

An Anthology of Chinese Discourse on Translation (Volume 1): From Earliest Times to the Buddhist Project

Translators:
Martha Cheung; Lin Wusun

Publisher:
Routledge

Publication Year:
2014




Abstract:

Translation has a long history in China. Down the centuries translators, interpreters, Buddhist monks, Jesuit priests, Protestant missionaries, writers, historians, linguists, and even ministers and emperors have all written about translation, and from an amazing array of perspectives. Such an exciting diversity of views, reflections and theoretical thinking about the art and business of translating is now brought together in a two-volume anthology. 

The first volume covers a time-frame from roughly the 5th century BCE to the twelfth century CE. It deals with translation in the civil and government context, and with the monumental project of Buddhist sutra translation. The second volume spans the 13th century CE to the Revolution of 1911, which brought an end to feudal China. It deals with the transmission of Western learning to China - a translation venture that changed the epistemological horizon and even the mindset of Chinese people. 

Comprising over 250 passages, most of which are translated into English for the first time here, the anthology is the first major source book to appear in English. It carries valuable primary material, allowing access into the minds of translators working in a time and space markedly different from ours, and in ways foreign or even inconceivable to us. The topics these writers discussed are familiar. But rather than a comfortable trip on well-trodden ground, the anthology invites us on an exciting journey of the imagination.

Table of Contents:

PART ONE: FROM EARLIEST TIMES TO THE EASTERN HAN DYNASTY (25-220 CE)

OVERVIEW

Laozi (b. c. 570 BCE)

THE CONSTANT WAY (TAO)

From Chapter 1, Tao-te-ching 道德經

Laozi (b. c. 570 BCE)

TRUSTWORTHY WORDS ARE NOT BEAUTIFUL

From Chapter 81, Tao-te-ching 道德經

Kongzi (Confucius) (traditionally 551-479 BCE)

FINE WORDS CAN HARDLY BE PART OF TRUE VIRTUE

From Verse 3, Book 1, Lunyu 論語 (The Analects)

Kongzi (Confucius) (traditionally 551-479 BCE)

LEARN TO DEVELOP MORAL QUALITIES

From Verse 6, Book 1, Lunyu 論語 (The Analects)

Kongzi (Confucius) (traditionally 551-479 BCE)

A LEARNED MAN

From Verse 7, Book 1, Lunyu 論語 (The Analects)

Kongzi (Confucius) (traditionally 551-479 BCE)

SUBSTANCE AND ATTENTION TO FORM AND BEAUTY

From Verse 18, Book 6, Lunyu 論語 (The Analects)

Kongzi (Confucius) (traditionally 551-479 BCE)

THE ABSOLUTE ESSENTIAL

From Verse 7, Book 12, Lunyu 論語 (The Analects)

Kongzi (Confucius) (traditionally 551-479 BCE)

SINCERITY IS ALL-IMPORTANT

From Verse 18, Book 15, Lunyu 論語 (The Analects)

Kongzi (Confucius) (traditionally 551-479 BCE)

GET YOUR MEANING ACROSS

From Verse 41, Book 15, Lunyu 論語 (The Analects)

10 Kongzi (Confucius) (traditionally 551-479 BCE)

HE WHO IS SINCERE WILL BE TRUSTED

From Verse 6, Book 17, Lunyu 論語 (The Analects)

11 (Attributed to) Kongzi (Confucius) (traditionally 551-479 BCE)

HOW MUCH USE CAN THERE BE IN A MINOR ART?

From "Xiaobian" 小辨 (Minor Arts), Chapter 74, Da Dai liji 大戴禮記 (Elder Dai's Book of Rites)

12 (Attributed to) Kongzi (Confucius) (traditionally 551-479 BCE)

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND MEANING

From "Xici zhuan shang" 繫辭傳上 (Appended Statements, Part 1, Chapter 12), Zhouyi 周易 (Zhou Changes)

13 (Attributed to) Kongzi (Confucius) (traditionally 551-479 BCE)

THE MAN OF TRUE VIRTUE

From "Wenyanzhuan qianjiusan" 文言傳‧乾九三 (Sayings on Patterning [with reference to] the Third Line of Hexagram 1, Qian or Heaven), Zhouyi 周易 (Zhou Changes)

14 (Attributed to) Kongzi (Confucius) (traditionally 551-479 BCE)

LITERARY PATTERNING GIVES FORCE TO LANGUAGE

From "Xianggong Ershiwunian" 襄公二十五年 (The 25th year of Duke Xiang [of Lu] [548 BCE]), in Chunqiu Zuozhuan Zhengyi 春秋左傳正義 (The Chronicles of Zuo)

15 (Attributed to) Zuo Qiuming (556-451? BCE)

INTERPRETERS ALSO KNOWN AS "TONGUE-MEN"

From "Zhouyu zhong" 周語中 (Zhou Discourses, Part 2), in Guoyu 國語 (Discourses of the States), Volume 2

16 Mengzi (372-289 BCE)

THE RIGHT WAY IS TO READ WITH EMPATHY

From Passage 4, Chapter 9, Mengzi 孟子

17 (Attributed to) Zhuangzi (369-286 BCE)

WHAT IS VALUED IN WORDS IS NOT WHERE THE VALUE OF WORDS LIES

From "Tiandao" 天道 (The Way of Heaven), in Zhuangzi 莊子, with annotations by Wang Bi 王弼 and Guo Xiang 郭象

18 (Attributed to) Zhuangzi (369-286 BCE)

ONCE YOU HAVE GOT THE IDEA, THE WORDS ARE FORGOTTEN

From "Waiwu" 外物 (External Things), in Zhuangzi 莊子, with annotations by Wang Bi 王弼 and Guo Xiang 郭象

19 Xunzi (340?-245? BCE)

THE ELEGANT AND PROPER STANDARD

From "Yuelun" 樂論 (A Discussion of Music), in Xunzi 荀子, Volume 14

20 Han Fei (280-233 BCE)

THE MAN OF TRUE VIRTUE CHERISHES SUBSTANCE AND FROWNS UPON PURE EMBELLISHMENT

From "Jielao" 解老 (Explaining the Laozi), in Hanfeizi 韓非子, Volume 6

21 Zhou Rites

Author unknown

THE DUTIES OF GOVERNMENT INTERPRETERS IN ANCIENT TIMES

From "Xiangxu" 象胥 (Interpreting-functionaries), in "Qiuguan sikou xia" 秋官司寇下 (Ministry of Justice, Part 2), collected in Zhouli 周禮 (Zhou Rites), Volume 10

22 Zhou Rites

Author unknown

THE TRAINING OF INTERPRETERS

From "Da xingren" 大行人 (Senior Messenger), in "Qiuguan sikou xia" 秋官司寇下 (Ministry of Justice, Part 2), collected in Zhouli 周禮 (Zhou Rites), Volume 10

23 Lü Buwei (d. 235 BCE)

ONE WOULD HAVE NO NEED FOR XIÀNG, YÌ OR DÍDĪ

From "Shenshi" 慎勢 (Heeding the Circumstances), in Lüshi chunqiu 呂氏春秋 (The Annals of Lü Buwei), Volume 17

24 Dai Sheng (fl. 74-49 BCE)

MAKING ACCESSIBLE WHAT IS IN THE MINDS OF DIFFERENT PEOPLES AND MAKING THEIR LIKINGS AND PREFERENCES UNDERSTOOD

From "Wangzhi" 王制 (Royal Institutions), in Liji 禮記 (Book of Rites), Volume 4

25 (Attributed to) Fu Sheng (268-178 BCE)

AN ANCIENT RECORD OF INTERPRETING ACTIVITIES

From "Jiahe" 嘉禾 (Luxuriant Grain), in Shangshu dazhuan 尚書大傳 (Amplification of the Book of History), Volume 4


PART TWO: THE BUDDHIST PROJECT

GENERAL REMARKS

SECTION ONE: DISCOURSE ON SUTRA TRANSLATION: INITIAL STAGE

OVERVIEW

26 (About) An Shigao (fl. second century CE)

ELOQUENT WITHOUT BEING FLOWERY, UNHEWN WITHOUT BEING COARSE

From "An Shigao zhuan" 安世高傳 (A Biography of An Shigao), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 13

27 Liu Xi (fl. 147-220 CE)

APPROXIMATE THE STANDARD LANGUAGE

From "Shi dianyi" 釋典藝 (Explanation of the Exact Meanings of Canons and Conventions), in Shiming 釋名 (The Explanation of Names), Volume 6

28 (About) Lokakṣema (b. 147 CE)

NOT A TOUCH OF EMBELLISHMENT IN THE STYLE

From "Zhi Chen zhuan" 支讖傳 (A Biography of Lokakṣema), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 13

29 Zhi Qian (fl. 233-253 CE)

LACKING IN FELICITY

From "Faju jing xu" 法句經序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Dharmapāda), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 7

30 Wang Bi (226-249 CE)

IMAGES, WORDS, AND IDEAS

From "Mingxiang" 明象 (Elucidating the Images), Zhouyi lüeli 周易略例 (General Remarks on the Zhou Changes)

31 Kang Senghui (d. 280 CE)

RUISM AND BUDDHISM TEACH CERTAIN VALUES IN COMMON

From "Kang Senghui" 康僧會 (Kang Senghui), from "Yijingpian yi" 譯經篇(一) (On the Translation of Sutras, Part 1), collected in Gaoseng zhuan 高僧傳 (The Biographies of Eminent Monks), Fascicle 1

32 Zhi Mindu (fl. 325-342 CE)

THE SAME SUTRA, THREE TRANSLATORS, THREE DIFFERENT VERSIONS

From "He weimojie jing xu" 合維摩詰經序 (Preface to the Composite Edition of [the Translations of] the Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa Sūtra), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 8

33 Dao An 道安 (312/314-385? CE)

LOSSES SHOULD BE ANNOTATED

From "Taoxing jing xu" 道行經序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Taoxing Version of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā Sūtra [Perfection of Wisdom Sutra in 8,000 Lines], in 10 fascicles), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 7

34 Dao An (312/314-385 CE)

THE TWO TRANSLATIONS THREW LIGHT ON EACH OTHER 

From "He Fangguang Guangzan lüejie xu" 合放光光讚略解序 (Preface to A Brief Exegesis on the Composite Edition of the Fangguang and Guangzan Versions of [the Translation of] the Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā Sūtra [Perfection of Wisdom Sutra in 25,000 Lines]), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 7

35 Dao An (312/314-385 CE)

DILUTING WINE WITH WATER

From "Biqiudajie xu" 比丘大戒序 (Preface to the Abridged [Translation of the] Sarvqsti-vāda-vinaya-bhiksu-pratimoksa), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 11

36 Dao An (312/314-385 CE)

FIVE INSTANCES OF LOSING THE SOURCE; THREE DIFFICULTIES

From "Mohe boluore boluomi jing chao xu" 摩訶羅若波羅蜜經抄序 (Preface to A Collation of [the Translation of] Extracts from the Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra [Perfection of Great Wisdom Sutra], 5 fascicles), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 8

37 Dao An (312/314-385 CE)

THERE WERE QUITE A LOT OF REPETITIVE INCANTATIONS, SOME DESIRABLE AND NECESSARY AND OTHERS NOT SO

From "Apitan xu" 阿毗曇序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Abhidharma Jñānaprasthāna-śāstra), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 10

38 Dao An (312/314-385 CE)

IT IS THE TRANSLATOR'S FAULT IF THE MEANING IS NOT CONVEYED IN FULL

From "Piposha xu" 鞞婆沙序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Vibhāsā-śāstra), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 10

39 Anonymous (Attributed to one of Dao An's disciples)

SIGNS OF AN UNHEWN STYLE

From "Sengjialuosha jijing houji" 僧伽羅剎集經後記 (Postscript to [the Translation of] the Compilation of Saṃgharakṣa), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 10

40 Hui Yuan 慧遠 (334-416 CE)

WORK OUT AN APPROPRIATE METHOD

From "Sanfadu xu" 三法度序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Tridharmika-śāstra), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 10

SECTION TWO: DISCOURSE ON SUTRA TRANSLATION: MIDDLE STAGE

OVERVIEW

41 Seng Rui (353?-420? CE)

SPOILT BY FLOWERY OSTENTATION

From "Siyi jing xu" 思益經序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Viśeṣacintabrahma-pariprcchā Sūtra), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 8

42 Kumārajīva (344-409 CE)

IT IS LIKE GIVING SOMEONE RICE THAT YOU HAVE CHEWED; HE WILL FIND IT NOT JUST TASTELESS BUT DOWNRIGHT DISGUSTING

Recorded in "Jiumoluoshi Zhuan" 鳩摩羅什傳 (A Biography of Kumārajīva), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 14

43 Seng Rui (353?-420? CE)

WHERE TERMINOLOGY IS CONCERNED, ITEMS THAT SHOULD HAVE BEEN RENDERED BY THEIR SOUND RATHER THAN THEIR MEANING WERE RENDERED AS TRANSLITERATIONS

From "Dapin jing xu" 大品經序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Larger Division of the Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra [Perfection of Great Wisdom Sutra]), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 8

44 Seng Zhao 僧肇 (384-414 CE)

[KUMĀRAJĪVA] DID NOT THINK THAT THE LAST TEN CHAPTERS WERE USEFUL TO THIS LAND, AND SO HE DID NOT TRANSLATE THEM

From "Bailun xu" 百論序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Śata-śāstras), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 11

45 Seng Zhao (384-414 CE)

THE LANGUAGE USED WAS ECONOMICAL YET ACCOMPLISHED, AND THE MESSAGE WAS CONVEYED SUBTLY YET LUCIDLY

From "Weimojie jing xu" 維摩詰經序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa Sūtra), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 8

46 Kumārajīva (344-409 CE)

"THAT'S EXACTLY HOW IT IS!"

Recorded in "Shi Seng Rui" 釋僧叡 (Shi Seng Rui), collected in Gaoseng zhuan 高僧傳 (The Biographies of Eminent Monks), Fascicle 6

47 Hui Guan (353-424? CE)

KUMĀRAJĪVA WAS ABLE TO USE THE LANGUAGE OF THIS LAND TO CONVEY A MEANING THAT DID NOT DISTORT THE SOURCE

From "Fahua zongyao xu" 法華宗要序 (Preface to the Doctrinal Essentials of the Lotus Sutra), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 8

48 Seng Rui (353?-420? CE)

JUST FOLLOW THE SOURCE

From "Xiaopin jing xu" 小品經序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Smaller Division of the Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra [Perfection of Great Wisdom Sutra]), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 8

49 Hui Yuan (334-416 CE)

AN EASIER PATH WOULD BENEFIT BEGINNERS

From "Dazhilun chao xu" 大智論抄序 (Preface to A Collation of Extracts from [the Translation of] the Mahāprajñāpāramitā-śāstra [A Treatise on the Perfection of Great Wisdom Sutra]), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 10

50 Kumārajīva (344-409 CE)

IF I HAVE NOT TRANSGRESSED THE TRUTH IN MY TRANSLATIONS, LET MY TONGUE NOT BE DESTROYED IN MY CREMATION

Recorded in "Jiumoluoshi Zhuan" 鳩摩羅什傳 (A Biography of Kumārajīva), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 14

51 Dao Biao 道標 (fl. 394-415 CE)

MERE KNOWLEDGE OF THE LANGUAGE WAS NOT DEEMED ADEQUATE FOR CONVEYING THE CENTRAL IDEAS

From "Shelifu apitan xu" 舍利弗阿毗曇序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Śāriputrābhidharma-śāstra), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 10

52 Dao Lang (fl. 412-427 CE)

LIKE MILK DILUTED WITH WATER

From "Daniepan jing xu" 大涅槃經序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Mahā-parinirvāṇa Sūtra), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 8

53 Shen Yue (441-513 CE)

READABILITY SHOULD COME FIRST

Recorded in "Wenzhang pian" 文章篇 (On Essays), in Yanshi jiaxun 顏氏家訓 (Instructions of the Yan Family), Volume 1

54 Seng You (445-518 CE)

HOW CAN WE STUDY THE BUDDHA'S TEACHINGS WITH NO KNOWLEDGE OF THOSE WHO TRANSMITTED THE SUTRAS AND NO UNDERSTANDING OF THEIR TIMES?

From "Chusanzang jiji xu" 出三藏記集序 (Preface to A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 1

55 Seng You (445-518 CE)

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SANSKRIT AND HAN LANGUAGES

From "Hu han yijing yinyi tongyi ji" 胡漢譯經音義同異記 (A Record of the Similarities and Differences in Pronunciation and Meaning Among the Chinese Translations of Sutras from Hu-language), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 1

56 Seng You (445-518 CE)

THEY CLING TOO CLOSELY TO THE WORDS AND THE TEXT, WITH THE RESULT THAT THE MEANING IS SELDOM FULLY REVEALED

From "Dao Sheng fashi zhuan" 道生法師傳 (A Biography of Dao Sheng), collected in Chusanzang jiji 出三藏記集 (A Collection of Records on the Emanation of the Chinese Tripitaka), Fascicle 15

57 Hui Jiao (497-554 CE)

SINCE BUDDHISM CAME TO THE EAST, MANY HAVE PARTICIPATED IN TRANSLATING THE SUTRAS, BUT FEW HAVE TRIED TO PASS ON THE SOUNDS AND MUSIC OF THE RELIGION

From "Gaoseng zhuan jingshi pian fulun" 高僧傳經師篇附論 (Appendix [to the Section "Sermonists"]), collected in Gaoseng zhuan 高僧傳 (The Biographies of Eminent Monks), Fascicle 13

58 Paramārtha (499-569 CE)

I HAVE NO REGRETS IN MY LIFE!

Recorded in "Chen Yangdu Jinling shamen Shi Fa Tai zhuan" 陳楊都金陵沙門釋法泰傳 (A Biography of the Chen Dynasty Monk Fa Tai from Jinling), in "Benzhuan" 本傳 (Main Biographies), from "Yijing pian chu" 譯經篇(初) (On the Translation of Sutras, Part 1), collected in Xu gaoseng zhuan 續高僧傳 (A Continuation of the Biographies of Eminent Monks), Fascicle 1

59 Hui Kai (518-568 CE)

THE PRESENT TRANSLATION SEEKS TO BE AT ONCE REFINED [WÉN 文] AND UNHEWN [ZHÌ 質]

From "Shedachenglun xu" 攝大乘論序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Mahāyāna-saṃparigraha-śāstra, in "Shedache1nglun" 攝大乘論 (The [Translation of the] Mahāyāna-saṃparigraha-śāstra), Fascicle 1

60 Hui Kai (518-568 CE)

IN TRANSLATING, PARAMĀRTHA DID NOT REQUIRE THE HELP OF AN INTERPRETER

From "Apitanmojusheshilun xu" 阿毗達磨俱舍釋論序 (Preface to [the Translation of] the Abhidharmakośa-śāstra), in "Apitanmojusheshilun" 阿毗達磨俱舍釋論 (The [Translation of the] Abhidharmakośa-śāstra), Fascicle 1

61 Dao An (fl. 557-581 CE)

LOOK BEYOND THE WORDS AND NAMES TO THE SUBSTANCE

From "Kong Lao fei fo" 孔老非佛 [Kongzi is not Buddha, and Neither is Laozi], in Erjiaolun 二教論 (A Treatise on the Two Religions), collected in Guang hongmingji 廣弘明集 (A Further Collection of Essays on Buddhism), Fascicle 8

62 Fa Lin (572-640 CE)

THE SEVENTH TYPE OF BENIGHTEDNESS

Recorded in "Neisanbao wufanzhi" 內三寶無翻指 (Why the Three Precious Ones should be Not-translated [transliterated]), from "Jiuzhen pian xia" 九箴篇(下) (Nine Admonitions, Part 2), in Bian zheng lun 辯正論 (Defending the Right), collected in Guang hongmingji 廣弘明集 (A Further Collection of Essays on Buddhism), Fascicle 13

63 Yan Cong (557-610 CE)

ON THE RIGHT WAY

Recorded in "Sui Dongdu Shanglinyuan fanjingguan shamen Shi Yan Cong zhuan" 隋東都上林園翻經館沙門釋彥琮傳 (A Biography of Monk Shi Yan Cong of the Shanglinyuan Translation Assembly at Dongdu [now Xi'an] in the Sui Dynasty), in "Benzhuan" 本傳 (Main Biographies), from "Yijing pian er" 譯經篇(二) (On the Translation of Sutras, Part 2), collected in Xu gaoseng zhuan 續高僧傳 (A Continuation of the Biographies of Eminent Monks), Fascicle 2

SECTION THREE: DISCOURSE ON SUTRA TRANSLATION: LATER STAGE

OVERVIEW

64 Dao Xuan 道宣 (596-667 CE)

THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF TRANSLATION ARE FAR-REACHING AND IMMENSE

From "Yijing pian si fulun" 譯經篇(四)附論 (Appendix [to the Section "On the Translation of Sutras, Part 4]"), collected in Xu gaoseng zhuan 續高僧傳 (A Continuation of the Biographies of Eminent Monks), Fascicle 4

65 Bian Ji (619?-649? CE)

IN SUTRA TRANSLATION, THE PROFOUND MESSAGE SHOULD BE MADE EASILY UNDERSTANDABLE; AND AS LONG AS THE TRANSLATION DOES NOT VIOLATE THE SOURCE, IT IS A GOOD TRANSLATION

From "Jizan" 記贊 (Eulogy), collected in Datang xiyuji 大唐西域記 (The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions), Volume 12

66 Zhangsun Wuji (d. 659 CE) et al

PUNISHMENTS FOR WILFUL OBSTRUCTION OF JUSTICE BY GOVERNMENT INTERPRETERS

From "Zheng bu yan qing" 證不言情 (Giving False Evidence), from "Zhawei" 詐偽 (Deception), collected in Tang lü shu yi 唐律疏義 (The Code of the Tang, with Notes and Commentaries), Volume 25

67 Xuan Zang (600 - 664 CE)

FIVE GUIDELINES FOR NOT-TRANSLATING A TERM

Recorded in "Fanyi mingyi ji xu" 翻譯名義集序 (Preface to A Collection of Names and Their Explanations in Buddhist Translations), collected in Fanyi mingyi ji 翻譯名義集 (A Collection of Names and Their Explanations in Buddhist Translations)

68 Xuan Zang (600 - 664 CE)

WHY SHOULD BUDDHIST TERMS BE LINKED UP WITH TAOIST MEANINGS?

Recorded in "Jing Daci'ensi Shi Xuan Zang zhuan" 京大慈恩寺釋玄奘傳 (A Biography of Xuan Zang of the Great Ci'en Monastery), in Benzhuan 本傳 (Main Biographies), from "Yijing pian si" 譯經篇(四) (On the Translation of Sutras, Part 4), collected in Xu gaoseng zhuan 續高僧傳 (A Continuation of the Biographies of Eminent Monks), Fascicle 4

69 Hui Li (b. 615 CE)

ONLY WITH THE GOOD FORTUNE OF PATRONAGE CAN THE RELIGION SPREAD AND BENEFIT THE MANY

Recorded in Datang Daci'ensi Sanzang Fashi zhuan 大唐大慈恩寺三藏法師傳 (A Biography of the Tripitaka-master of the Great Ci'en Monastery of the Great Tang Dynasty), Volume 8

70 Hui Li (b. 615 CE)

TRANSLATE EVERYTHING AND OMIT NOTHING

From Datang Daci'ensi Sanzang Fashi zhuan 大唐大慈恩寺三藏法師傳 (A Biography of the Tripitaka-master of the Great Ci'en Monastery of the Great Tang Dynasty), Volume 10

71 Yi Jing (635 - 713 CE)

XUAN ZANG TOOK ON THE TASKS OF INTERPRETING THE MEANING OF THE TEXT AND RENDERING THE TEXT INTO CHINESE, SEEKING NO OUTSIDE ASSISTANCE EITHER IN THE SELECTION OF WORDS OR IN DECIDING ON THE MAIN DOCTRINAL PRECEPTS

From "Sanzang shengjiao xu" 三藏聖教序 (Preface to the Tripitaka (by Emperor Zhongzong)), in Quan Tang wen 全唐文 (Complete Prose of the Tang), Volume 17

72 Wu Zetian (624-705 CE)

IT IS PROPER THAT TAOISM AND BUDDHISM BE TREATED WITH EQUAL RESPECT

From "Seng Tao bingzhong chi" 僧道並重敕 (Edict that Saṅgha (Buddhism) and Taoists (Taoism) be Given Equal Status), in Quan Tang wen 全唐文 (Complete Prose of the Tang), Volume 96

73 Gautama Siddhārtha (fl. late seventh to early eighth centuries CE)

WE HAVE TRIMMED WHAT WAS REDUNDANT AND OMITTED THE ELABORATE PARTS

From "Qutan Xida" 瞿曇悉達 (Gautama Siddhārtha), in Chouren zhuan 疇人傳 (The Biographies of Astronomers and Mathematicians), Volume 13

74 Zhao Ying (fl. 936-942 CE) and Liu Xu (887-946 CE)

THE FABRICATED DAYUN SUTRA WAS MADE AVAILABLE THROUGHOUT THE REALM

From "Xue Huaiyi" 薛懷義 (Xue Huaiyi), in "Waiqi" 外戚 (Relatives of the Imperial Consort), from "Liezhuan" 列傳 (Biographies), in Jiu Tang shu 舊唐書(Old Tang Records), Volume 183

75 Zan Ning (919-1001 CE)

TO TRANSLATE MEANS TO EXCHANGE

From "Tang Jingxiu Dajianfusi Yi Jing zhuan" 唐京兆大薦福寺義淨傳 (The Biography of Yi Jing from Great Jianfu Temple in the Central Administrative Region in the Tang Dynasty), collected in Song gaoseng zhuan 宋高僧傳 (The Song Version of the Biographies of Eminent Monks), Fascicle 1

76 Zan Ning (919-1001 CE)

NOTES ON TRANSLATING

From "Tang jingshi Man Yue zhuan" 唐京師滿月傳 ["A Biography of Man Yue of the Capital of the Tang Dynasty"], in "Yijing pian yi zhi san" 譯經篇一之三 (On the Translation of Sutras, Part 3), collected in Song gaoseng zhuan 宋高僧傳 (The Song Version of the Biographies of Eminent Monks), Fascicle 3

77 Zan Ning (919-1001 CE)

THE DIFFERENT POSTS ESTABLISHED IN TRANSLATION ASSEMBLIES AND THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE OFFICIALS IN EACH POST

From "Tang jingshi Man Yue zhuan" 唐京師滿月傳 ["A Biography of Man Yue of the Capital of the Tang Dynasty"], in "Yijing pian yi zhi san" 譯經篇一之三 (On the Translation of Sutras, Part 3), collected in Song gaoseng zhuan 宋高僧傳 (The Song Version of the Biographies of Eminent Monks), Fascicle 3

78 Zan Ning (919-1001 CE)

RENOWNED MONKS GATHERED IN THE PALACE HALL TO HOLD FORTH AGAINST TAOIST PRIESTS

From "Tang Jianglingfu Fa Ming zhuan" 唐江陵府法明傳 (A Biography of Fa Ming of the Administrative Region of Jiangling in the Tang Dynasty), in "Hufa pian" 護法篇 (On Protecting the Dharma), collected in Song gaoseng zhuan 宋高僧傳 (The Song Version of the Biographies of Eminent Monks), Fascicle 17

79 Zan Ning (919-1001 CE)

THE REMARK THAT THE DAYUN SUTRA IS A FABRICATION IS NOT TRUE

From "Ci seng ziyi" 賜僧紫衣 (Purple Ceremonial Robes Bestowed Upon Buddhist Monks as Gifts), Dasong seng shilüe 大宋僧史略 (The Song Dynasty Compendium of Monastic History), Volume 2

80 Hong Hao (1088 - 1155)

THE TŌNGSHÌ 通事 [INTERPRETING-CLERKS] HAD GREAT INFLUENCE

Recorded in Songmo jiwen 松漠記聞 (Travel Records of the Pine and Desert Lands)

81 Fa Yun (1088-1158)

WE USE THE TRANSLATED SUTRAS IN THIS LAND TO MANIFEST THE TRUTH THAT COMES FROM ANOTHER LAND

From Fanyi mingyi ji 翻譯名義集 (A Collection of Names and Their Explanations in Buddhist Translations), Fascicle 1

82 Fa Yun (1088 - 1158)

A BRIEF STUDY OF SOME OF THE TERMS AND NAMES USED IN THE TRANSLATED SUTRAS

From "Tang Fan ziti pian" 唐梵字體篇 (On the Chinese Script and the Fàn [Sanskrit] Script), collected in Fanyi mingyi ji 翻譯名義集 (A Collection of Names and Their Explanations in Buddhist Translations), Fascicle 15

Biographical Notes on People Mentioned in the Text

Works Cited

References

Index

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